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Warm Up • Draw and label the parts of an atom. • Using the terms: proton, neutron, electron, nucleus, electron cloud.
Biochemistry Chapters 2 & 3
Matter • Occupies space & has mass • Mass: any quantity of matter an object has • All matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms • Atoms: simplest particle of an element that retains that element’s properties. • Nucleus: positive core (protons & neutrons) • Electron Cloud: negative region (electrons) - - + - + + + + - -
Elements • Element: substance made up of atoms that have the same number of protons • Ex: each atom of the Carbon element have 6 protons. »The number of electrons (ions) and neutrons (isotopes) can vary.
Electrons • Negatively charged • Located in orbitals (in electron cloud) around nucleus • Orbital 1 holds 2 electrons • Orbital 2 (and ↑) hold 8 electrons • Valance Electrons: electrons in outermost orbital • Atoms want to be stable…stable means 8 (except for H and He…stable means 2).
Chemical Bonding • Atoms bond with other atoms to fill the outermost orbital • When atoms combine, a chemical bond holds them together • Chemical bond: attractive forces that hold atoms together • Covalent (non-metal/non-metal only) or Ionic (all other types of bonds)
Chemical Bonding • Ionic Bond: one atom donates electron(s) to another atom • Ex: NaCl (Cl gains 1 electron from Na) • Covalent Bond: 2 or more atoms share electrons • Ex: H2O (H needs 1 electron and O needs 2 electrons)
Compounds • Made up of atoms of 2 or more elements bonded to one another • Most atoms are not stable alone…so • React with one another to become stable • 6 most common elements found in living things: • N-CHOPS (Nitrogen, Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, Sulfur) • all non-metals…covalent bonding…share e-
Covalent Bond Modeling • 1. Write symbol for each element. • 2. Cover symbol with correct color atom. • C - Black, H - Yellow, O - Red, Cl - Blue • 3. Use FrootLoop to represent valance e-. • Be sure to pencil in e- before removing FrootLoop • 4. Rearrange e- to pair up e- from each atom. • 5. Draw circles to show sharing of e-. • 6. Draw bond structure using symbols and lines. • 7. Use atom and wooden pegs to represent drawing from step #6.
Warm Up • How many valance electrons does Carbon have? How many bonds can Carbon form?
Carbon Bonding • 2 categories of compounds: • Organic: primarily made of Carbon atoms • Inorganic: do not contain Carbon atoms • Carbon Atoms: • 4 e- in outer orbital (needs 4 e-) • Readily forms 4 covalent bonds with other atoms • Unique: Carbon atoms bond with other Carbon atoms • Forming straight chains, branched chains, and rings
Large Carbon Molecules • Monomer: small, simple Carbon molecule • Building blocks • 6 carbon rings • Polymer: repeated, linked monomers • Macromolecule: large polymer • Ex: carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids, proteins.
Dehydration & Hydrolysis • Dehydration: water molecule is released when a monomer bonds to another monomer (or polymer) • When building bonds • Also called condensation reactions • Hydrolysis: water molecules are used to break down a polymer • When breaking bonds • Energy is released when breaking bonds
Dehydration • Each Carbon in monomers have 4 bonds already (stable) • What must be done to bond to another carbon monomer? (To create an organic molecule) • Break bonds to make bonds • Lose a water molecule
Dehydration Models • Collect Materials • Complete condensation/dehydration reactions • Cut and tape carbon molecule (monomers) together • Cut water drop and glue/tape O,H,H into it • Answer questions. • Save macromolecule in notes.
Warm Up • How are dehydration and hydrolysis reactions related to organic molecules?
Macromolecules • Formed via dehydration reactions • Monomers bond together form polymers • Monomers bonded to polymers to form macromolecules • 4 types: • Carbohydrates • Proteins • Lipids • Nucleic Acids
Carbohydrates • Composed of: C, H, O • Function: Source of energy & structural material for organisms • Structure: basic ring structure • Can exist as monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides • Monomer of a carbohydrate is a monosaccharide.
Proteins • Composed of: C, H, O, N • Function: enzymes, build muscle, hair, horns, and skin • Structure: • Central carbon • Carboxyl group • Amine group • Hydrogen • R group • Monomer of a protein is an amino acid • 20 different Amino Acids
Proteins • R group • Also called the functional group • Influences the characteristics and chemical reaction of molecules that they compose • Create the variety among amino acids • Ex: -OH (hydroxyl) group makes the molecule polar
Lipids • Composed of: C, H, O • Function: storage of energy, protection (waxy coating), steroids • Structure: • Carboxyl (COOH) (polar head) • Long carbon chain (nonpolar tail) • Monomer of a lipid is a fatty acid • C-C and C-H bonds are high energy • Lipids store more energy than other organic molecules
Nucleic Acids • Composed of: C, N, P, O • Function: store & transfer information, direct cell activities, manufacture proteins • Structure: • Phosphate Group • Carbon (Sugar) • Nitrogenous base • Monomer of a nucleic acid is a nucleotide
Macromolecule Project • Collect materials • Use colored pencils, markers, or crayons • Include: Composition, Structure (include labels), Function, and example(s). • and any fun fact you find • Be consistent with colors • Ex: make all Hydrogen Red, and all Carbons Black, etc. • Be neat and creative! • If you don’t finish in class, it’s homework! • Due tomorrow!
Enzymes • Most made of protein • Acts as biological catalyst: • Accelerates chemical reaction • Active site-specific for substrate • Reactions break substrate down • Very common in human body • Hemoglobin binds with oxygen • Enzymes in stomach aid breakdown of food for digestion
Enzymes • Lock & Key