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The Age of Jackson, Reform and Industrial Growth. 1824-1860. The Rise of Mass Democracy. 1825-1840. Possible Quick Writes.

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possible quick writes
Possible Quick Writes
  • Andrew Jackson and his supporters have been criticized for upholding the principles of majority rule and federal supremacy inconsistently and unfairly. Assess the validity of this criticism in the cases of two of the following: recharter of the bank, the nullification controversy and the removal of Native Americans
  • In what ways did the religion of the Second Great Awakening and economic changes influence the reform movements of the period 1820-1860?
  • How did industrialization change the roles of labor and women in the first half of the 19th century?
i the corrupt bargain
Early 1820’s sectional differences emerge after the Panic of 1819 and the Missouri Compromise

Emergence of two party political system

New types of political parties emerged, became accepted

Emergence of new type of voter: fewer property qualifications means more people eligible to vote (less restriction)

New styles of campaigns, banners, badges, politicking

1828 new party, Democrats

1830’s Whig Party emerges

Two party system part of checks and balances of political power

More people began to vote (78% in1840)

I. The Corrupt Bargain
i the corrupt bargain1
I. The Corrupt Bargain
  • 1824- Last of the old style elections
  • Adams (MA), Clay (KY), Wm. Crawford (GA), Jackson (TN) all running for president
  • Jackson strongest personal appeal, support from the West
    • Won a majority of the vote, did not win in electoral college
  • Clay (also Speaker of the House), threw support behind Adams
  • Clay hated Jackson (from 1818 Florida foray)
  • Did not like Adams either, but both were nationalists
i the corrupt bargain2
I. The Corrupt Bargain

1825 vote in House gave election to Adams, Clay becomes Sec. of State (seen as stepping stone to presidency)

Supporters of Jackson called it a corrupt bargain

No positive evidence of “corrupt bargain”, Clay becomes Sec. of State

Changed political system, no more elections behind closed doors

ii yankee misfit in the white house
II. Yankee Misfit in the White House
  • Adams could be an irritable loner
  • Great Sec. of State, poor president
  • Not good at politics
  • Did not have popular support
  • Kept people in office, didn't do political favors for supporters
  • Nationalistic views and ideas in contrast with national mood turning towards sectionalism and state’s rights
  • Land policies and Indian policies turned off Westerners
iii going whole hog for jackson in 1828
III. Going “Whole Hog” for Jackson in 1828
  • By 1828 Democrat-Republicans split into two groups
  • National Republicans supported Adams
  • Republicans supported Jackson
    • Jackson seem as champion of common man
  • Mudslinging, accusations in election of 1828
  • Vote split along sectional lines
  • West and South supported Jackson
  • New England supported Adams
  • Vote split in rest of country but Jackson won the electoral vote
  • Shift of political power from eastern seaboard to emerging western states
iv old hickory as president
Jackson from humble beginnings

Force of personality and power of leadership led to rise to national prominence

First president from the west, frontier aristocrat, slave owner

Election seen as rise of “peoples champion”

Wild inauguration, supporters flooded Washington, and wrecked White House

Conservatives saw this as the rise of the dreaded democratic mob

IV. Old Hickory as President
v the spoils system
V. The Spoils System
  • Washington was due for an overturn in the established powers, many had been around since the early 1800’s
  • Under Jackson spoils system used on a large scale (rewarding supporters with political jobs)
  • Promise of “spoils” led to party loyalty instead of economic, class and geographic loyalties
  • Rewarding cronies led to scandal, but it was an important element to the development of the two party system
vi the tricky tariff of abominations
VI. The Tricky “Tariff of Abominations”
  • Tariffs had protected American Industry against European competition
  • Invited retaliatory tariffs against American goods
  • Tariff raised in 1824, 1828
  • Southerners thought tariffs discriminated against them
  • Tariff of 1828 called “Tariff of Abominations”, “Black Tariffs”
  • Southerners sold goods on world market, unprotected by tariffs, forced to buy manufactured goods in a market protected by tariffs
  • Northeast was having a boom in manufacturing, how was the South doing?
  • Tariff was an easy scapegoat
vi the tricky tariff of abominations1
VI. The Tricky “Tariff of Abominations”

Meanwhile in the South…..

  • Feelings were heightened by the fear that the federal government would interfere with slavery
  • Missouri Compromise, Denmark Vesey slave rebellion (1822), mounting pressure in support of abolition (in US and abroad)
  • Tariff seen as issue to the South as a way to take a stand for states’ rights
  • South Carolina took the lead
  • 1828The South Carolina Exposition secretly written by John Calhoun (vice president)
  • Wrote that tariff was unjust and unconstitutional, proposed that states should nullify tariff within their own borders
vi nullies in south carolina
VI. “Nullies” in South Carolina
  • In SC Tariff of 1832 tipped balance to support nullification
  • Delegates declared tariff null and void in state
  • Threatened to take state out of the Union
  • No other Southern states actively supported SC actions
  • Jackson would not permit defiance, dispatched military reinforcements to state to enforce, collect tariff
  • Jackson endorsed tariff
  • Henry Clay stepped in to broker a compromise
vi nullies in south carolina1
VI. “Nullies” in South Carolina
  • Compromise- Tariff Bill of 1833-would reduce tariff 10% over 8 years
  • Debate broke down over sectional lines
  • South favored compromise, Jackson would not have to use the military
  • Force Bill also passed at the same time, authorized president to use military to collect tariff
  • SC delegates met again repealed ordinance of nullification, but they nullified force bill
  • Only winner was Clay, seen as hero that saved the country
vii the trail of tears
VII. The Trail of Tears
  • Jacksonians committed to Western Expansion, viewed Native Americans as in the way
  • Since 1790’s American policy toward Indians, they were recognized as separate nations
  • US acquired land through treaties, terms violated regularly as Anglo settlement pushed west
  • Some tribes assimilated into American culture, some resisted it
  • Cherokee of GA, NC assimilated into American ways (part of 5 Civilized Tribes- Creek, Choctaw, Seminole, Chickasaw)
  • Cherokee embraced civilization- written constitution, written legal code, alphabet
  • Some were even slave holders
  • 1830- Congress passes Indian Removal Act, appropriated money to remove Indians to permanent reservation west of the Mississippi (act supported by Jackson, Southerners and Westerners)
  • Jackson, like many Westerners thought Indians needed to be removed east of the Mississippi, open land to white settlement
vii the trail of tears1
VII. The Trail of Tears
  • 1828- Georgia Legislature declared Cherokee tribal council illegal, asserted jurisdiction over their lands
  • Cherokees appealed to Supreme Court (two separate cases)
  • Court upheld rights of Indians
  • Jackson disagreed with the Supreme Court, ordered removal of Indians (“Marshall made his decision, now let him enforce it”)
  • Uprooted more than 100,000 Indians, westward movement known as the Trail of Tears
  • 1836 Bureau of Indian Affairs established to administer relations with Native Americans
  • Settlers pushed west the permanent frontier for Indians gradually shrank and many guarantees went up in smoke
vii the trail of tears2
VII. The Trail of Tears
  • Sauk and Fox Indians in Wisconsin and Illinois resisted eviction
  • Led by Black Hawk the rebellion was crushed by American troops in 1832 (Black Hawk War)
  • Seminoles waged a bitter guerilla war for seven years in the swampy Everglades (1835-1842)
  • Leader, Osceola was captured under a flag of truce, some fled deeper into the swamps, 80% were moved to Oklahoma
viii the bank war
VIII. The Bank War
  • Jackson distrusted big business and the Bank of the US
  • Why?


    • Banks minted gold and silver coins
    • Paper money printed by private banks (value fluctuated with health of bank and amount of money printed
    • Bank of US source of credit, principle depository of federal money, source of credit and stability
    • Acted like another branch of government


    • Bank not accountable to people, existed to make a profit for investors, seen as against “American "way
viii the bank war1
VIII. The Bank War

1832 Bank War begins

  • Webster, Clay push for recharter of Bank to make it a political issue in election of 1832
    • If passed and signed by Jackson it would alienate his western followers, if vetoed he would loose support of wealthy, influential easterners
    • Jackson vetoed, declared bank unconstitutional, found it harmful to nation
  • Another instance of Jackson regarding executive branch superior to judicial branch
  • Jackson expands power of executive branch
ix old hickory wallops clay in 1832
IX. Old Hickory Wallops Clay in 1832
  • Clay and Jackson squared off in election of 1832
  • First time third party ran, Anti-Masonic Party
    • Supporters in NY, Middle states, New England
    • Against secret societies, support from evangelical Protestants (use political power to bring moral and religious change)
  • Jacksonians against government interference in social and economic life
  • First use of nominating conventions
  • Clay had support from businessmen and eastern newspapers
  • Jackson wins election handily (219-49 in electoral college)
x burying biddle s bank
X. Burying Biddle’s Bank
  • Charter for Bank of US expire 1836 , Jackson wants to take it out
  • 1833 Jackson removes federal deposits, bleed bank dry
    • Had to reshuffle cabinet to find people to support him
    • Biddle calls in loans from Bank to show importance, causes financial panic
    • Jackson places funds in state banks (“pet banks”), banks with pro Jackson sympathies
    • Banks flood country with paper money, currency becomes unreliable
  • 1836- Specie Circular required public lands to be purchased with hard currency (gold, silver currency)
  • Put brakes on land speculation, sales
  • Causes financial panic and crash in 1837
xi depression doldrums and the independent treasury
XI. Depression, Doldrums and the Independent Treasury
  • Panic 1837 caused by over-speculation on lands, borrowed money based on shaky currency and wildcat banks


  • Jackson’s policies on the Bank of the US
  • Rising grain prices
  • British Banks calling in loans
  • Caused commodity prices to drop, land sales to fall off, factories closed, high unemployment and bank closures
xii election of 1836
XII. Election of 1836
  • Martin Van Buren chosen as Jackson’s successor
  • Whigs don’t nominate single candidate, many candidates for regional appeal
  • Wanted to put election in hands of House
  • Van Buren won election easily
  • Van Buren inherited problems over which he had no control
  • Did not have the force of personality that Jackson had to deal with problems
  • Depression, possible war with Canada
xiii the birth of the whigs
XIII. The Birth of the Whigs
  • 1830’s new political party emerges- Whigs
  • Hatred of Jackson was what they rallied around
  • Whigs were led by Clay, Calhoun, Webster
    • Attracted groups alienated by Jackson- supporters of American System, southern states righter's, northern industrialists, absorbed evangelical protestants from Anti-Masonic Party
    • Progressive in support of active government programs and reforms, called for internal improvements
    • Supported prisons, asylums, public schools and the market economy
    • Claimed to be defenders of common man (stole from Democrats)
van buren s problems
Van Buren’s Problems
  • Whigs tried to make government more active to end depression (expansion of credit, tariffs), Van Buren kept government out of economy
  • Van Buren tried to help economy through the “Divorce Bill”, keeping government out of banking by establishing an independent treasury, caused credit to shrink
  • Not popular
  • 1840- Passed by Congress, repealed next year, revived in 1846 and continued until the Civil War
xvi log cabins and hard cider of 1840
XVI. Log Cabins and Hard Cider of 1840
  • 1840 Van Buren runs again for president, Whigs get behind one candidate William Henry Harrison
  • Harrison, war hero and Indian fighter
  • Views on issues vaguely known
  • Played as a “common man”, really from old Virginia family
  • Selected John Tyler as VP
  • Plan was to drive corrupt Jacksonians from White House
  • Harrison won, time for Whig ideas of government action to stimulate the economy
xv two party system
XV. Two Party System
  • 1840’s American politics adopt populist, democratic style
  • Old aristocracy seen as bad
  • Politicians wanted to claim humble beginnings, politicians had to adopt “common touch”
  • Resulted in formation of vigorous and durable two party system
  • Both parties grew out of Jeffersonian Republicanism
  • Democrats were for the liberty of the individual, state’s rights, federal restraint
  • Whigs supported national bank, protective tariffs, internal improvements and moral reforms
  • Both mass based, appeal led to compromise within the parties, kept extreme views from becoming dominant, reduced sectionalism