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MEXICO. Historical Development of Mexican Political Culture. Important Themes to the Development of Mexican Political Culture . (1) Geography & Demographics (2) Impact of Colonialism (3) Mexican Independence (4) The Porfiriato (5) Revolution of 1910 (6) The Cardenas Upheaval

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mexico

MEXICO

Historical Development of Mexican Political Culture

important themes to the development of mexican political culture
Important Themes to the Development of Mexican Political Culture

(1) Geography & Demographics

(2) Impact of Colonialism

(3) Mexican Independence

(4) The Porfiriato

(5) Revolution of 1910

(6) The Cardenas Upheaval

(7) Techicos

geography demographics
Geography & Demographics
  • Regionalism – large mountain ranges and vast deserts separate Mexico into regions – a major characteristic of the political system
geography demographics1
Geography & Demographics
  • Mexico has an abundance of oil, silver, and other natural resources
  • History of mismanagement and foreign exploitation has prevented the Mexican people from benefiting.
geography demographics2
Geography & Demographics
  • Mexico shares a 2,000-mile-long border with the U.S. leading to Contacts, Conflicts, Migration, and Dependency Issues.
geography demographics3
Geography & Demographics
  • Population Levels
    • 111 million Mexicans (11th largest nation)
    • Most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world
    • Population growth has slowed significantly (+1.1%), but still growing
geography demographics4
Geography & Demographics
  • Mexico has urbanized rapidly
  • 77% of the population lives in cities
  • Mexico City (18 million people) one of the largest cities in the world

Urban Skyline of Mexico’s capital - Mexico City

historical trends and traditions in mexico s political past
Historical Trends and Traditions in Mexico’s Political Past

(1) Authoritarianism

(2) Populism

(3) Power plays/divisions within elite

(4) Instability and legitimacy issues

historical development of mexican political culture
Historical Development of Mexican Political Culture

(1) Colonialism

  • Mexico was a colony of Spain from 1521-1810
  • Spanish brought Roman Catholicism to Mexico
  • 60% of Mexicans are Mestizo – a ethnic blend of Spanish and Amerindian
  • Began economic dependency

Spanish Conquistador Hernan Cortes conquered Mexico

historical development of mexican political culture1
Historical Development of Mexican Political Culture

(2) Mexican Independence

  • Mexican priest Miguel Hidalgo led a popular rebellion against the Spanish
    • Mexican Independence Day 09/16/1810
  • Independent Mexico struggled with instability and legitimacy issues
  • Instability gave rise of the military as a political force
  • U.S. dominates Mexico
    • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) – gave U.S. Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, California, Utah and part of Colorado

Father Miguel Hidalgo led the war for Mexican Independence

historical development of mexican political culture2
Historical Development of Mexican Political Culture

(3) The Porfiriato

  • Gen. Porfirio Diaz staged a military coup (1876), became President and ruled Mexico with an iron hand for 34 years.
    • Brought stability & authoritarianism
    • Foreign investment (US) brought economic growth
    • Only for some – gap between rich and poor widens

Gen. Diaz, President of Mexico (1876-1911)

historical development of mexican political culture3
Historical Development of Mexican Political Culture

(4) Mexican Revolution of 1910

  • Reformers sought to end Diaz dictatorship
  • Constitution of 1917 – set up a democratic government, w/3 branches and competitive elections
  • Caudillos – political/military strongmen from different regions of Mexico fought for power
    • Ex.) Pancho Villa
  • Patron-Clientelism - a system in which the state provides specific benefits or favors to a single person or small group in return for public support
  • Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) – “institutionalized” the revolution by establishing a large umbrella political party that would share the power among Caudillos

Revolution leader Pacho Villa

historical development of mexican political culture4
Historical Development of Mexican Political Culture

(5) Cardenas Upheaval

  • Lazaro Cardenas – charismatic leader who spoke for the poor brought major change
    • Nationalized industry
      • PEMEX – giant government-controlled oil company
      • Import Substitution Industrialization
    • Redistributed land
    • Invested in public works
    • Concentrated power in the presidency

Lazaro Cardenas (1934-1940) considered to be Mexico’s Roosevelt

historical development of mexican political culture5
Historical Development of Mexican Political Culture

(6) Tecnicos

  • 1950s Mexico welcomed foreign investment again
  • “Mexican Miracle”– based largely on huge supplies of natural resources, Mexico’s economy boomed
  • Tecnicos – educated, business-oriented leaders in government and PRI.
    • Neoliberalism – supported free markets, balanced budgets, privatization, free trade, and limited government in economy.