Think – Pair - Share • How was Mexico formed as a country? • Write out what you think on a scratch sheet of paper. • In 2 minutes you will pair up with someone else and compare your answers. • We will then discuss as a class. • (Think about the visual history I gave you on Friday.)
Spanish Conquest • Conquistadors – conquerors • Came looking for the three G’s • Gold, Glory and God • Hernán Cortés • Arrived in 1519 – approx 500 soldiers • Landed in the Caribbean • Took slaves to Mexico
Spanish Conquest • Aztecs • Montezuma is their leader. • Over 250,000 living in the capital city of Tenochtitlan. • Advanced city / warring nation • Their capital was an Island in the middle of a lake.
How were the Spanish able to conquer that many Aztecs in such a short period of time with so few Spaniards?
Quetzalcoatl • light skin, red hair, and light eyes • Would come to earth during the end times • Would come by way of the sea
Spanish superiority • Weapons made of iron • Metal armor • Cannons • Ships • Horses • Disease • Captives from the Caribbean
Spanish Conquest Complete • Conquered Aztecs in 1521 • Destroyed Tenochtitlan • Current site of Mexico City • King started giving free land to Spanish citizens who moved to the colonies.
Early Social Classes • Peninsulares • From Spain and moved to the Americas • Had all the power • Criollos • Spanish ancestry born in Americas • Mestizos • Mixed blood • Indians
Social Classes • Most people are Mestizos. • They are poor and cannot own land. • Very few are Peninsulares • Very wealthy and have all power and land. Are these groups equal? What do you think is going to happen?
Road to Democracy • 1821 - Rebellion led by a Criollo priest Miguel Hidalgo leads to Mexican independence. • Wealthy peninsulares still own all land and hold all power. • Mexican Revolution 1910 – 1920 • Became a democratic republic
A summary of what happened. • Spanish come over • Conquer the Aztecs • The King gives land to the Spanish • The Peninsulares who get the land are out numbered by the colonists. • America gains independence from England. • Colonists want independence. • Mexicans revolt to get land away from the wealthy.
Government President Felipe Calderon (since 2006)
Government • Federal Republic • President • 6 year term • Few checks on his power • Creates almost 90% of the laws • Bicameral legislature • Judicial branch
Major Industries • Immigration • Migrants come to the U.S and send money home • Billion dollar industry • http://current.com/green/76279482_the-minuteman-project.htm
Major Industries • Oil • PetroleosMexicanos (PEMEX) • This is a State owned company • Tourism • Manufacturing • Manufactured goods are the leading export
NAFTA • North American Free Trade Agreement • (NAFTA) 1993 • Doubled trade with United States and Canada • Created manufacturing jobs
Maquiladoras • Assemble products almost exclusively for U.S. • Spurred economic growth along U.S. border • Employ 1,000,000+
Maquiladoras • an American business can start an operation within as little as 4 weeks. • What are some disadvantages to this system?
Drug Trafficking – Why Mexico? • Weak local and State governments • Increased international success combating drug smuggling in Colombia and the Caribbean • Ease of buying guns in the U.S and transporting them to Mexico
Drug Trafficking • 10 Billion dollar industry • Government Corruption
Quiz L2 – 12pts • What were the four classes in Mexico’s early colonial period? • What is a Maquiladora? • Give 2 reasons why Drug trafficking has become increasingly popular in Mexico. • What is NAFTA? • How were the Spanish able to conquer the Aztecs so easily?
Regions of Mexico • Heartland Region • Gulf Coastal Plain • Yucatán Peninsula • Volcanic activity • Sierra Madre • Baja California
Northern Pacific Coast Gulf Coastal Plain Heartland Region Yucatán Peninsula Southern Pacific Coast
Northern Pacific Coast • Baja California • Peninsula • Tijuana • Productive farmland • irrigation
Southern Pacific Coast • Sierra Madre Mountains • From north to South • Tourism • Acapulco • Mazatlán • Puerto Vallarta
Gulf Coastal Plain • Fossil fuels • Natural gas • Oil • On Gulf Coastal Plain • Under Gulf of Mexico
Yucatán Peninsula • Limestone bedrock • Porous • Creates caverns • sinkholes • Tourism • Cancún • Mayan ruins
Heartland Region • Plateau • An area of high, flat land • Densely populated area • Mexico City
Heartland Region • Earthquakes • Dozens a year. • Buildings are weaker than the U.S. • 1985 earthquake killed 10,000
U.S vs. Mexico Population Mexico - 109,955,400 U.S - 303,824,640 Life Expectancy Mexico - 75 years U.S - 78 years GDP (per capita) Mexico $12,800 U. S $45,800 Growth rate Mexico - 1.14% U.S - .88% City Population Mexico City - 8,658,576 New York - 8,143,197