Defining Motivation. The result of the interaction between the individual and the situation. The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal – specifically, an organizational goal. Three key elements:
The result of the interaction between the individual and the situation.
There is a hierarchy of five needs. As each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant.
Salf-Actulization Needs Dominant In The Need Structure
A reworking of Maslow to fit empirical research.
Key Point: Satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not opposites but separate constructs
Extrinsic and Related to Dissatisfaction
Intrinsic and Related to Satisfaction
Issue Maslow Herzberg
Type of theory Descriptive Prescriptive
The satisfaction Unsatisfied needs energise Needs cause performance performancerelationship behaviour, this behaviour causes performance
Need order Hierarchy of needs No hierarchy
Effect of pay Pay is a motivator if it satisfies Pay is not a motivator
Effect of needs All needs are motivators at various Only some needs are times motivators
View of motivation
Macro view – deals with all aspects Micro view – deals primarily of existence with work related motivation
Worker level Relevant for all workers Probably more relevant to white – collar and
Herzberg says that hygiene factors must be met to remove dissatisfaction. If motivators are given, then satisfaction can occur.
Overall perception of what is fair in the workplace.
The strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of the outcome to the individual.
Expectancy of performance success
Instrumentality of success in getting reward
Valuation of the reward in employee’s eyes
Employee Identifica-tion as a bridge between Extrinsic and Intrinsic motivation
Motivation by goal setting: Management by objectives (MBO)
MBO is based on the philosophy that the manager and the managed ought to negotiate or collaborate on defining the objectives the employee is to pursue over the next time period.
Reward system for high performance: Behaviour modification
Rewards systems based on the assumptions that people in positions of authority can be taught to use environmental consequences to stimulate and shape the behaviours of people.
Job design affecting work outcomes
Motivation by empowerment