Warm-Up. What is deviance? Contrast positive and Negative deviance. Why are they both considered deviance?. Social Control. All societies have ways to promote order, stability, and predictability in social life. Social controls are the ways in which societies promote conformity to norms.
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Warm-Up • What is deviance? • Contrast positive and Negative deviance. Why are they both considered deviance?
Social Control • All societies have ways to promote order, stability, and predictability in social life. • Social controls are the ways in which societies promote conformity to norms. • Without social controls life would be unpredictable and chaotic. • CFU: What are some of the social controls we have in American society?
Internal Social Control • Internal social control lies within the individual. • It is developed during the socialization process. • You are practicing internal social control when you do something because you know it is the right thing to do or when you don’t do something because you know it would be wrong. • Ex. Most people most of the time do not steal. They act this way not just because they fear arrest or lack the opportunity to steal but because they consider the theft to be wrong. • The norm against stealing has become a part of them. • This is know as the internalization of social norms.
External Social Control • Internal social controls do not ensure that all people will conform to the norms of society all of the time. • Because of this, we also have external social controls and social sanctions. • Social sanctions are rewards or punishments that encourage conformity to social norms. • Positive sanctions include rewards, increased allowance, promotions, smiles of approval… • Negative sanction include criticism, fines, imprisonment… • Sanctions can be both formal and informal.
Critical Thinking • At some point in growing up, nearly everyone displays some minor deviant behaviors, such as cutting class, telling a lie, or committing a crime. Getting “caught” in such behaviors generally results in attempt at social control. • Recall such an instance in your life and write a 7-10 sentence paragraph to answer the following questions: • Describe the instance. • What types of social control were you exposed to? • How successful were these controls in changing your behavior?
DOL • Given an exit card, SWBAT: • Write a definition of deviance in your own words. • Describe the difference between internal and external sanctions.
Objective & DOL Objective: SWBAT explain the positive and negative consequences of deviance and compare the major functional theories of deviance, including the strain theory. DOL: • Given a popular song, SWBAT explain how it exemplifies the strain theory: • Write a description of each of the four deviant responses to strain. Relevance: Today we are learning about this because all societies are effected by deviant behavior. The strain theory offers insight into why deviant behaviors occurs (helps criminologists…).
Reading • P. 80 • Do you agree/disgaree with the way this society handles murderers? • How does this compare or contrast to the way America handles homicide? • Does America always treat murder as a bad thing?
Functionalism and Deviance • Review: The functionalist perspective emphasizes social stability and the way the different parts of a society contribute to the whole. • Functionalists believe that some deviance can contribute to the smooth operation of society. • Deviance can have both positive and negative consequences for society. • Think / Write / Share: • What is the functional aspect of deviance? What are the positive and negative effects of deviance for a society? Provide examples and explain your answer.
Negative Effects • One major negative effects of deviance is that it erodes trust in a society. • A society with widespread suspicion and distrust cannot function smoothly. • If deviance is not punished or correct it can cause nonconforming behavior in others. • What would you do if a bus passes you waiting at stop? When parents neglect children? • CFU: How can this be seen in the classroom? • Deviant behavior is also expensive. • It diverts resources, both human and monetary (police, school administrators dealing with “crime”)
Positive Effects • Society can sometimes benefit from deviance in spite of it negative effects. • Deviance clarifies norms by exercising social control to defend it values. • Casey Anthony: What did her trial reaffirm in American culture? • Society defines, adjusts, and reaffirms norms. • Deviance can be a temporary safety valve. • Teens demonstrate deviant behavior to relieve some of the pressure they feel from the many authority figures in their lives. • Deviance can also increase unity within a society, promote needed social change, and can even stimulate the economy. • Ex. Protests, building of prisons….
Anomie • According to Emile Durkheim, anomie is a social condition in which norms are weak, conflicting or absent. • Without shared norms, individuals are uncertain about how they should think and act. • Causes societies to become disorganized. • Are we in a state of anomie right now? Compared to the 1950s? • In 1968, sociologist Robert Merton adapted this concept of anomie to deviant behavior and called his hypothesis the strain theory.
Strain Theory • Strain theory- suggests that deviance is most likely to occur when there is a gap between culturally desirable goals (such as money and prestige) and a legitimate way of obtaining them. • Every society establishes some goals and socially approved ways of reaching them. • In the U.S. an important goal is success and the material possessions that go with it. What is the accepted way to reach this? • Education and hard work are two of the approved means for being successful. • When people accept this goal and the means to achieve it they are conforming. • Wealthy people conform but so do poor people who continue to work in low-paying jobs in the hope of one day improving their lives. • When people do not conform they are by definition engaging in deviant behavior.
Deviant Responses to Strain • There are 4 responses to strain that are considered deviant.
Deviant Responses to Strain • There are 4 responses to strain that are considered deviant.
Deviant Responses to Strain • There are 4 responses to strain that are considered deviant. • Innovation • The individual accepts the goal of success but uses illegal means to achieve it. • Ex. Drug dealing • Ritualism • The individual rejects the goal of success but continues to use legitimate means. • People go through the motions without really believing in the process. • Ex. Teacher who goes through the daily routines of work without any concern for student or the quality of their teaching.
Deviant Responses to Strain • Retreatism • A deviant response in which both the legitimate means and the approved goals are rejected. • They are not successful by either legitimate or illegitimate means and they no longer seek success. • Ex. Drug addicts. • Rebellion • People reject both success and the approved means for achieving it. • They substitute a new set of goals and means. • Ex. Militia groups living outside of the law.
Which response? • wants a nice car, so he/she works hard, saves and buys it.) • conformist • does not car about nice cars. Instead, they decide on something unusual that they want. But, they work hard, save, and buy it • Ritualist • may want something unusual, and will do anything to get it. • rebellion • wants a nice car, so they rob a bank. • innovator • may not work hard and save, or they may not do anything deviant. They don't want anything anyway. • retreatist
Strain Theory in Literature • Crime and the American Dream (Messner & Rosenfeld, 1993). • Examines how the pursuit of the American Dream, which involves making money and obtaining wealth, pushes people to commit criminal acts. The structure of the modern society forces people to obtain money by any means necessary. • Do you agree?
Are both of these students receiving equal access to achieve material success?
Critical Thinking • According to strain theory, American culture is not structured in such a way as to allow all segments of society equal opportunity or access to the education, careers, etc. necessary to achieve material success. This added strain on those unable to achieve success though approved means so contributes to much of the deviance seen among the poorer classes. • Do you agree with this theory? • Write an SCR explaining why you agree or disagree with this theory. • Cite specific examples to prove your argument.
DOL • Given a popular song, SWBAT explain how it exemplifies the strain theory: • Write a description of each of the four deviant responses to strain.
Homework: • Read pg. 211-212 in your textbook.
Control Theory- conformity to social norms depends on the strong bonds b/t indiv. in socity. • If bonds are weak (anomie is present), dev. occurs. • What creates bonds? • Attachment • Commitment • Involvement • Belief
DOL • What is a secondary deviant? • What are the social consequences of labeling? • Think of someone you know or in society who is labeled a deviant. What are the consequences of this for that person?