Section 7.3 The expanding universe
Hubble’s Ideas... • ____________________________(1889-1953) • An American astronomer • One of the first to study _______________ • Two of his major findings changed astronomy (1918-1929) • Confirmed many other galaxies existed beyond the _________________________ • Found that almost all galaxies are _________________ from each other • This meant that the universe is _____________________!! (this was stated by a man named _________________)
But how? • How did Hubble do this? • Measured the distance from Earth of _____________ • Measured the _____________of their movement • Collected light from the galaxies and examined their __________________________ (spectra) • ____________________________________: the rainbow band of colours into which white light separates when it passes through a prism • Hubble’s work and ideas remain the foundation of modern understanding of the nature and origin of the universe
The REAL Big Bang Theory • What is it? • One of the most remarkable theories of the 20th century • _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ • NO _______________________________!! • All matter and energy today was created during the early minutes of the hot, rapid expansion • Credited to George Gamow and Ralph Alpher
Evidence for the BBT • Commonly accepted that universe formed ________________________ years ago • ______________of universe and SPACE and TIME!! • What Hubble saw: • Looking at light spectra, figured out each galaxy’s speed moving away from ours • He saw that the _______________________ the galaxy was, the ____________it was moving away • Loads of “light” elements (H and He)
The Wave Nature of Light • _____________________________: energy that travels in waves of varying lengths • E.g.: light, radio waves, microwaves, ultraviolet radiation, X-rays • __________________is E.R. we can see with our eyes • When it is split into a rainbow of colours, it’s called the _______________________________________
Electromagnetic Spectrum Full range of E.R. organized by wavelength from very long to very short
The Wave Nature of Light • Wavelength of _________ light is longer than the wavelength for ___________light • Spectroscope • This is an optical instrument that separates _____________ into its spectral colours • Helps astronomers analyse star light
The Wave Nature of Light Spectral Lines Look like a UPC/bar code Created when each gas that makes up a star absorbs some of the light energy Each gas does this differently, creating different lines We can see the spectral lines of H in the spectra of almost all celestial objects, meaning H is present throughout the universe
Red-Shifted Spectral Lines • ___________________________ • The change in position of spectral lines to the left or right of where they normally are in the spectrum of a light source that is not moving • Astronomers noticed that in all galaxies Hubble was studying, spectral lines were shifted to the ________ • This meant that the light source and observer are ________________________ from each other at a high speed!!
Picture the Waves... In this picture, the duck sits still, creating even ripples on the water As the ducks starts swimming, ripples behind stretch out (wavelength is longer) This is how Hubble knew galaxies were moving away from earth (expanding); he measured light wavelengths emitted from a galaxy to see if and where it was moving
Red-Shifted Spectral Lines • Hubble saw this _________________ pattern in many galaxies • Gave support to theory that space was _____________________________! • _____________________ telescope in Hawaii repeated Hubble’s work with 60 000 galaxies instead of 46 • Added to Hubble’s work
Learning Checkpoint • What is a spectrum? • What is the name given to the generally accepted scientific theory that describes the origin and evolution of the universe? • How is it possible to know that the element hydrogen exists throughout the universe? • How does the idea that space itself is expanding relate to the observation that the spectra from distant galaxies are red-shifted?
Using Microwaves to Map Cosmic Background Radiation • Critical question related to BBT: • ___________________________________________________________________________________? • First bit of universe was HOT with short waves • Then universe cooled and waves lengthened where did the extra energy go? • All space should have evidence of this __________________________
More Evidence for BBT • ____ Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson made the big discovery (_________________________) • _________________________________________ • Energy left over from the massive split-sec expansion • ______________________ Radiation Maps • Maps of cosmic background radiation collected from most distant parts of visibleuniverse • CBR found fits with predictions consistent with BBT