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Case Study – Health sector COSTA RICA. National Meteorological Institute Ministry of Environment and Energy Magda Campos Barrantes Paraguay - August, 2006. First National Communication Forestry sector Agriculture sector Water resources Coastal Zones Second National Communication

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Case Study – Health sectorCOSTA RICA

National Meteorological Institute

Ministry of Environment and Energy

Magda Campos Barrantes

Paraguay - August, 2006


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First National Communication

Forestry sector

Agriculture sector

Water resources

Coastal Zones

Second National Communication

Health sector

National Communications


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Climate

Costa Rica


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Dry season

Rainy season

Climate


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Case study…

  • Dengue broke the altitudinal barrier in 1995.

    In agreement with specialists, “Aedes aegipty”, only developed in hot zones (hot climates). Nevertheless in Costa Rica it has evolved and extended its borders.

  • Reappearance of cholera in 1998.

  • Increase in cases of asthma in children, 32% of the population suffers from it and it is spreading.

  • Skin cancer has increased in Costa Rica. In the dermatology consultation of Hospital Calderón Guardia, two cases of skin cancer are treated per day.

  • Locust plague in 1998 and 2002

  • Increase in plagues in the Agricultural sector

  • In the years of “El Niño” (1997 and 2004), spots have been detected in the Red Tide on the Pacific side of Costa Rica. The reported toxicity in bivalves can cause serious health affectations to those who ingest them.

  • Increase in rat population (1999-2000)


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Case Study…

One of the diseases of the most epidemiological importance that is associated with rats is the Hantavirus. An increase of rodents puts the health of many communities at risk, mainly rural areas.

The population fluctuations of the cane rat (Sigmodon hispidus) in Guanacaste, Costa Rica, is directly associated with climate variability.

The phases of ENOS can be important for the prediction of rat plagues and therefore a valuable component of early warning systems in the health sector.


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Case study…

Relation between rat population (percentage anomaly) and annual precipitation (anomaly in mm). Cañas, Guanacaste. Costa Rica

…with high precipitation - high population of rats. This occurrence has is more likely to occur during La Niña events.


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Impacts in the health sector

  • Increase in number of illnesses transmitted by vector

  • Increase in number of dengue cases

  • Increase in number of deaths caused by dengue

  • Increase in number of asthma cases

  • Increase in skin cancer

  • Recurrence of respiratory illnesses

  • Increased demand for health services

  • Decrease in standard of living


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Challenges to face - Information

  • Better coordination between institutions

  • Standardization of data collection and methods

  • Better national coverage

  • Close gaps in the lack of specific information in the relationship between health and climate


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Technical needs

  • Software

  • Training in management of scenarios and methods

  • Assistance for presentations (communication) to government and private officials

  • Assistance for recompilation and processing of public data and information


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