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Enlightenment and Revolution. Scientific Revolution. 1. Dawn of Modern Science. The Old View Geocentric Theory The belief that the earth was the center of the universe and everything revolved around the earth 1 st proposed by Aristotle and then expanded upon by Ptolemy

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enlightenment and revolution

Enlightenment and Revolution

Scientific Revolution

1 dawn of modern science
1. Dawn of Modern Science
  • The Old View
    • Geocentric Theory
      • The belief that the earth was the center of the universe and everything revolved around the earth
      • 1st proposed by Aristotle and then expanded upon by Ptolemy
      • Supported by the Church
b. New Viewpoints
  • Scientific Revolution
    • People began to challenge traditional authorities
    • Theories about the natural world and developed procedures to test those ideas
  • Reasons for new ideas
    • Exploration
    • Scientists began to examine the natural world
c. The Scientific Method
  • Scientists developed a new approach to investigation and discovery, the Scientific Method
  • Consists of 5 basic steps
    • Identify a problem
    • Form a hypothesis that can be tested
      • Hypothesis is a proposed answer to the research question and is based on previous knowledge
3. Performed experiments to test the hypothesis

4. Record the results of the experiments

5. Analyze the results of the experiments to form a conclusion that either proves or disproves the hypothesis

iii. Two Important Scholars
  • Francis Bacon
    • Believed only true way to gain scientific knowledge was through observing, measuring, explaining and verifying
2. Rene Descartes
  • Placed emphasis on reason
  • Everything should be doubted until it is explained by reason
2 discoveries in astronomy physics and math
2. Discoveries in Astronomy, Physics and Math
  • Copernicus
    • 1st Scientist to complete model of the solar system that combined physics, astronomy and mathematics
    • Published his book “On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres”
      • He knew the church would oppose his work
      • Concerned over weakness of his theory
    • Copernicus died in 1542
b brahe and kepler
b. Brahe and Kepler
  • Brahe
    • 1572, wrote a book explaining the new object that appeared in Denmark’s sky
    • Proved that the object was a star
    • Called it a supernova
    • Was given money to build two conservatories by King Frederick II of Denmark
5. Developed his own system of planetary movement
  • Believed not only the earth but the other 5 known planets revolved around the sun

6. Hired an assistant, Johannes Kepler when he moved to Prague

ii. Johannes Kepler
  • Published Brahe’s results on the measurements of the orbit of Mars after his death
  • 1st astronomer to prove that planets orbit in ovals or elipses
c galileo galilei
c. Galileo Galilei
  • Built the first telescope in 1609
  • 1st to observe Saturn, craters on the moon, sunspots, moons of Jupiter and discovered that the Milky Way is made up of stars
  • Wrote a book about his discoveries called “Starry Messenger”
d sir isaac newton
d. Sir Isaac Newton
  • English scientists
  • Came up with the Universal Law of Gravity
    • States that gravity affects objects in the universe as well as on earth
  • Developed new kind of mathematics: Calculus
3 discoveries in biology and chemistry
3. Discoveries in Biology and Chemistry
  • Biology
    • Andres Vesalius
      • Became known for his work in anatomy
      • Published “On the Workings of the Human Body” in 1543
ii. William Harvey
  • Observed and explained the workings of the human heart
  • Described how blood and the circulatory system functioned
iii. Antony van Leeuwenhoek
  • Invented the first microscope
  • First to describe the appearance of bacteria, red blood cells, yeast and other microorganisms
b chemistry
b. Chemistry
  • Robert Boyle
    • Often called the Father of Modern Chemistry
    • 1st to define an element
    • “The Skeptical Chemist” describes matter as a cluster of tiny particles
    • Most significant contribution to chemistry was Boyle’s Law
      • Describes how temperature, volume and pressure affect gases
ii. Antione-Laurent Lavoisier
  • Developed methods for precise measurements
  • Discovered Law of Conservation of Mass
    • Proved matter could not be created or destroyed
  • Recognized and named oxygen
  • Introduced the metric system
  • 1st periodic table of elements (33)
4 science and society
4. Science and Society
  • Science and Church
    • The church had been the primary source for knowledge and learning
    • Conflicts between the Church and science
      • Church explained the world through inspiration and revealed truth
      • Science sought to explain the world through the accumulation of facts and logical reasoning
iii. Church vs. Galileo
  • Galileo published a book “Dialogue Concerning Two Chief World Systems”
    • Book supported both Copernicus and Ptolemy
  • Pope Urban VII ordered Galileo to stand trial
  • April 1633- Galileo reluctantly agreed that he would not use Copernican theory in his work
  • Galileo was put under house arrest and remained under it until he died
b science and art
b. Science and Art
  • Artist learned human anatomy so they could paint the body
  • Artist experimented with paints and nature of light
  • Used mathematics to create compositions of perfect balance
  • Mathematics and Physics helped in achieving great architecture and engineering achievements
c science and community
c. Science and Community
  • Scientific Revolution had firmly established a new way of thinking about the physical world
  • Scientific Revolution would lead others to seek new understandings about society
1 the age of reason
1. The Age of Reason
  • Enlightenment
    • By 1600s philosophers began to view reason as the best way to understand truth
    • People believed reason could be used to solve all human problems
    • This period of optimism and possibility is known as the Age of Reason or Enlightenment
2 new views on government
2. New Views on Government
  • Thomas Hobbes
    • Wrote “Leviathan”
    • Believed people were selfish and greedy
    • Believed governments were needed to impose order
    • Advocated the idea of a social contract
      • Idea that people give up certain freedoms in exchange for peace, safety and order that government could provide
b. John Locke
  • Wrote “Two Treatises of Government”
  • Believed people were naturally happy, tolerant and reasonable
  • Believed people were born with natural rights: life, liberty, and property
iv. Purpose of government is to protect people’s natural rights

v. Government got its power by the consent of the people

vi. People had the right to overthrow government if it failed to protect its citizen’s natural rights

c. Jean-Jacques Rousseau
  • Wrote “The Social Contract”
  • He believed that people were born basically good
  • Believed society corrupted people
iv. Argued government should work for the common good of the people not for the wealthy few

v. Believed individuals should give up some freedoms for the benefit of the community as a whole

d. Baron de Montesquieu
  • Wrote “TheSpiritoftheLaws”
  • Believed the best form of government included separation of powers
  • It would keep an individual or group from abusing its power
  • This concept would become an important part of the structure of later democratic governments
3 new views on society
3. New Views on Society
  • Voltaire
    • Attacked injustice where ever he saw it
    • Struggled for justice, religious tolerance and liberty during his entire life
b. Diderot and the Encyclopedia
  • Complied human knowledge into a single work called the Encyclopedia
    • Purpose was to promote knowledge
  • French leaders attacked the Encyclopedia because it criticized the church, the government and the legal system
c. Mary Wollstonecraft
  • English writer
  • Demanded equal rights for women
  • Argued that if men and women had equal education, they would be equal in society
d. Adam Smith
  • Wrote “Wealth of Nations”
  • Argued that business activities should take place in a free market
  • Believed in laissez-faire economics
    • An economic system that worked without government regulation
4 enlightenment ideas spread
4. Enlightenment Ideas Spread
  • Prussia
    • Frederick II
      • Believed that his duty was to rule with absolute power in order to build Prussia’s strength
      • Introduced Reforms
        • Established system of elementary education for all Prussian children
        • Abolished torture
        • Supported most forms of religious tolerance
        • Reduced censorship
3. Reforms were limited though
    • Did not extend religious freedom for the Jews
    • Opposed serfdom but did not abolish it
b russia
b. Russia
  • Catherine the Great
    • Reforms
      • Drafted a constitution and law code
        • Never passed
      • Intended to free the serfs but never did
    • Had no intention of giving up power and ruled as a tyrant
c austria
c. Austria
  • Joseph II
    • Reforms
      • Eliminated torture and the death penalty
      • Provided free food and medicine to the poor
      • Granted religious tolerance to Protestants and Jews
      • Abolished serfdom and required that laborers be paid for their work
1 change and crisis
1. Change and Crisis
  • Opposing British Policies
    • The Stamp Act
      • Passed in 1765
      • Required colonists to pay a tax for an official stamp on all newspapers, legal documents, and other public papers
      • Outraged colonists; boycotted English goods
      • 1766- Stamp Act is repealed
ii. 1767- imposed new taxes

iii. Boston Massacre

  • Incident involving British soldiers and Boston colonists
  • Result 5 colonists were killed
iv. Boston Tea Party
  • Led by Samuel Adams and the Sons of Liberty
  • Dumped British tea into Boston Harbor to protest the Tea Act
  • Britain responded by passing the Intolerable Acts

v. 1774, Colonist called the First Continental Congress in Philadelphia to list grievances against British government

Samuel Adams

Sons of Liberty

b revolution begins
b. Revolution Begins
  • Lexington and Concord
    • Colonist hid weapons in the countryside and British troops marched to find them
    • British met colonial militia on April 19, 1775
      • Started the American Revolution
  • Colonist were divided
    • Patriots- supported the revolution
    • Loyalists- supported the king
iii. Thomas Paine
  • Wrote pamphlet “Common Sense”
  • Argued colonies had matured to the point that they no longer need British rule
c declaring independence
c. Declaring Independence

John Adams

  • 1776, The Second Continental Congress met
    • Formed to write a document declaring the colonies’ independence
    • Members included John Adams, Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin
Thomas Jefferson

Benjamin Franklin

ii. Thomas Jefferson drafted the Declaration of Independence
  • July 4, 1776- The Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence
d the revolutionary war
d. The Revolutionary War
  • Second Continental Congress assigned George Washington as the commanding general of the army in June 1775
  • War began poorly for the British
    • Forced to evacuate Boston
  • British later defeat Washington in the Battle of Long Island
    • Drove continental army into New Jersey
    • Washington crosses the Delaware River and beat the British at Trenton
iv. 1777
  • Washington had defeats in New Jersey and Pennsylvania
  • Washington spent a deadly winter at Valley Forge
  • British were winning battles in the summer 1777 in upstate New York
  • October- Americans won the Battle of Saratoga
  • Benjamin Franklin went to Paris to ask for help from the French
    • This alliance would be the turning point of the war
v. British decide to divide the colonies in two

vi. September 1781, French and American armies surrounded the British under Lord Cornwallis in Yorktown, Virginia

  • Cornwallis would surrender to Washington on October 19, 1781

vii. September 1783, The British formally recognized the independence of the United States by signing the Treaty of Paris

George Washington

Lord Cornwallis

2 forming a new government
2. Forming a New Government
  • The Articles of Confederation
    • Established the first form of government in the new United States in 1781
    • National government was made weak to avoid abuses in power
    • Government was too weak to govern effectively
b. The Constitution
  • 1787, delegates met at a Constitutional convention in Philadelphia to revise the Articles
  • They wrote the U.S. Constitution instead
  • Constitution was written by James Madison
    • Signed in 1787
    • Went to the states to be ratified
    • Went into effect in 1789
iv. Constitution created a federal system of government
  • Divided power between the federal and state government
  • Divides the national government’s powers
3 Branch of Government
    • Executive – Presidential
      • Carries out the laws
    • Judicial
      • Interprets the laws
    • Legislative
      • Makes laws
      • Consists of two houses
        • House of Representatives (lower)
        • Senate (upper)
c bill of rights
C. Bill of Rights
  • Some felt the Constitution failed to protect individual rights
  • Wanted protection of these rights added
  • Bill of Rights are the first 10 amendments to the Constitution
  • Guaranteed equality, or due process, of law