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Enlightenment and Revolution. 1550-1789 Chapter 22. Vocabulary I. Geocentric Theory : Earth centered view of solar system (Aristotle) Scientific Revolution : New was of thinking about the natural world. Use science to answer questions (lightening)

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enlightenment and revolution

Enlightenment and Revolution

1550-1789

Chapter 22

vocabulary i
Vocabulary I

Geocentric Theory: Earth centered view of solar system (Aristotle)

Scientific Revolution: New was of thinking about the natural world. Use science to answer questions (lightening)

Scientific Method: Logical, step-by-step method of science. Foundation for all of modern research.

Heliocentric Theory: Sun centered view of solar system (Copernicus)

Galileo Galilei: Italian Astronomer. Findings went against the church.

Isaac Newton: English, Law of Gravity, Laws of Motion

vocabulary ii
Vocabulary II

Enlightenment: New intelligence movement that stressed reasons and thought to solve problems (figure it out)

Social Contract: Thomas Hobbes’ agreement with people and government. Consent to rule, rule for the people.

John Locke: Natural Rights; Everyone is born Free and Equal. (life, liberty and property). Overthrow gov. if these are not provided.

Voltaire: French, tolerance, reasons, religious freedom, speech, “I do not agree with a word you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it”

vocabulary iii
Vocabulary III

Montesquieu: French, separation of powers, “Power.. Should check power.”

Rousseau: French, Individual freedom, “Man is born free….and everywhere he is in chains.”

Mary Wollstonecraft: Women’s Rights, educated and useful (medicine/politics)

Salon: Social gatherings for “thinkers”

Enlightened Despot: Absolute ruler who accepted the Enlightenment ideas

Catherine The Great: Russia, reformed Russia using the ideas from the Enlightenment era.

the scientific revolution1
The Scientific Revolution
  • The Roots of Modern Science
    • New Way of Thinking
  • Scientific Revolution
    • Careful observation and questioning of accepted beliefs
  • Discovery of new lands during exploration and printing press helped to spread new ideas
  • The use of “science” to explain the unknown or the supernatural
    • Scientifically explanation for everything in the Universe
a revolutionary model of the universe
A Revolutionary Model of the Universe

The Heliocentric Theory

Nicolaus Copernicus – First to propose idea that sun was the center of the universe (1543)

Johannes Kepler- Demonstrated using math that planets revolve elliptically around the sun

galileo s discoveries
Galileo's Discoveries
  • Discovered the law of universal acceleration
  • Starry Messenger
  • The Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems
    • Built Europe’s first telescope, advocated that the sun was the center of the universe
  • Conflict With the Church
    • Church leaders were afraid new theories might cause others to question church
    • Forced Galileo to confess he thought Copernicus’ theory was wrong!
the scientific method
The Scientific Method
  • The Scientific Method
    • Using logic, reason, and experiments to reach conclusions
  • Rene Descartes
    • Everything should be doubted until proven by reason
  • Sir Isaac Newton
      • Explained the laws of gravity
the first true research scientists
The First True Research Scientists

Rene Descartes

“I think…therefore I am”

Sir Isaac Newton

newton explains the law of gravity
Newton Explains the Law of Gravity

All physical objects were affected equally by the same forces

“For every action… there is an equal or greater reaction”

The Mathematical Principals of Natural Philosophy

Universe was a giant “clock” and was expressed mathematically

the scientific revolution spreads medicine and the human body
The Scientific Revolution Spreads:Medicine and The Human Body
  • New technology such as the microscope allowed humans to see bacteria for the first time
  • Zacharias Janssen and Anton van Leeuwenhoek
    • Discover bacteria
  • Evangelista Torricelli (Italian)
    • Invented the Barometer
  • Gabriel Fahrenheit (German)
    • Thermometer “32”
  • Anders Celsius (Swede)
    • Celsius based on “0”
the scientific revolution spreads medicine and the human body1
The Scientific Revolution Spreads:Medicine and The Human Body
  • Andreas Vesalius (Dutch)
    • On the Structure of the Human Body
    • Detailed map of the body (organs/functions)
  • Edward Jenner (English)
    • Created world’s first vaccine
    • Helped to eliminate smallpox
  • Robert Boyle (English)
    • The Skeptical Chemist
    • Boyle’s Law: Matter was made up of smaller primary particles that joined together in different ways
      • Volume, Temperature and Pressure of gas
main ideas
Main Ideas

Before the 1500’s who was the “final” authority with most unexplained events?

Why did this institution resist change?

two views on government thomas hobbes vs john locke
Two Views On Government: Thomas Hobbes vs. John Locke
  • Thomas Hobbes
  • Book: The Leviathan
  • Humans are natural selfish and wicked
  • Governments needed to maintain order…
  • The Social Contract
    • Escape bleak life by having a strong ruler
    • In exchange for Law/Order
  • Absolute Rulers, Absolute Monarchy
john locke
John Locke
  • People could learn from experience/improve
  • Self-Government
  • All people are born free and equal
  • Natural Rights
    • Life, Liberty and Property
    • Government must protect these rights
    • Overthrow it!!
    • Power of government comes from the CONSENT of people
  • Book: Two Treatises of Government
enlightenment thinkers
Enlightenment Thinkers
  • Voltaire
    • 70 Books
  • Attacked abuses of the government and church
  • Advocated tolerance, reason, religious freedom and freedom of speech
  • “The pen is mightier than the sword”
enlightenment thinkers1
Enlightenment Thinkers

Baron de Montesquieu

Jean Jacques Rousseau

  • Montesquieu and the Separation of Powers
    • Believed that “power must check power” to prevent tyranny
    • Thought up the theory of Checks and Balances
    • Book: On the Spirit of Laws
  • Rousseau: Champion of Freedom
    • “Man is born free… but everywhere he is in chains”
    • Book: The Social Contract
    • “The only legitimate government was one freely formed by the people
    • Thought Direct Democracy the best form of government
enlightenment thinkers2
Enlightenment Thinkers'

CesareBonesanna Beccaria

Mary Wollstonecraft

  • Italian
  • Laws existed to preserve social order, not to avenge crimes
  • Abuses
    • torturing of witnesses/suspects
    • Speedy trial
    • Punishments fits the crime
  • Limited rights for women
  • A Vindication of the Rights of Women
    • Education to become useful
    • Women were important to society
the legacy of the enlightenment
The Legacy of the Enlightenment
  • Belief in Progress
    • Human reason could solve social and medical problems
    • Perfect society was possible
  • A More Secular Outlook
    • People began to question the beliefs and teachings of the church
    • Promoted religious tolerance
  • Importance of the Individual
    • People began to look inward for guidance instead of to the Church or monarchs
  • Causes Revolutions
    • American, French, South American, Etc.
the enlightenment spreads
The Enlightenment Spreads

Chapter 22:3

Frederick

The Great

Catherine

The Great

Joseph II

the enlightenment spreads1
The Enlightenment Spreads
  • 1700s Paris, France is the cultural/intellectual capital
    • Enlightenment Ideas are discussed
  • Salons
    • Social gatherings/spreading of Enlightenment ideals
  • First Encyclopediasare developed
    • Thirst for knowledge
the enlightenment spreads2
The Enlightenment Spreads
  • Changes in Music
  • Lighter more elegant music
  • Birth of “Classical” Music
    • Vienna, Austria
  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
  • Ludwig van Beethoven
enlightened musicians
Enlightened Musicians

Mozart

Beethoven

enlightened monarchs
Enlightened Monarchs

Enlighten Despots

Supported “new” enlightenment ideas

Didn’t want to loose any power!!

Stronger Countries/Rule More Effectively

enlightened despots
Enlightened Despots

Fredrick The Great of Prussia

Catherine The Great of Russia

enlightened despots1
Enlightened Despots

Fredrick The Great of Prussia

Catherine The Great of Russia

  • Promoted religious tolerance and abolished torture
  • The job of a ruler was to serve the state and the people
    • “The First Servant of The State…”

Limited the rights of Serfs to maintain power

Put in limited reforms for religious toleration

Expanded Russia west into Poland and south to the Black Sea