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Chapter 1 . What is listening? Helgesen , M. & Brown, S. (2007). Listening [w/CD ] . McGraw-Hill: New York. Daily Listening. What have you listened to today? Alarm Radio/TV/MP3 player Bus/Subway announcements Overheard other’s conversation

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chapter 1

Chapter 1

What is listening?

Helgesen, M. & Brown, S. (2007). Listening [w/CD]. McGraw-Hill: New York.

daily listening
Daily Listening
  • What have you listened to today?
    • Alarm
    • Radio/TV/MP3 player
    • Bus/Subway announcements
    • Overheard other’s conversation
    • Participated in a conversation with peers, superiors, parents, brothers/sisters, workers…
    • Other?
  • Which definition do you prefer (p.3) and why?
  • Which characteristics are most important?
  • Write your own definition of what listening is, but don’t copy any of the existing ones.
    • Continue to refine this throughout the semester.
    • It might be a question on the final.
listening vs hearing
Listening vs. Hearing
  • What is the difference between listening and hearing? Is there one?
  • Do the action activity on p. 4
  • The position of the authors is that listening is an active (rather than passive) skill.
    • It is still considered a receptive skill (like reading).
  • The reaction to and use of listening require active skills (writing or speaking)
reciprocal listening
Reciprocal Listening
  • Talking at you or with you?
  • Non-reciprocal listening is done when you (as the listener) are not responding to the input.
    • Radio, TV, language cassettes, podcasts, lectures (in many cases)
  • Reciprocal listening is interactive.
    • You listen and respond, which alters the next stage. You shape the interaction and, thus, the listening required.
  • Two general ways to consider the listening process: bottom-up and top-down.
  • Bottom-up processing builds comprehension by processing the pieces of language: sounds, syllables, words, phrases, sentences, grammar, stress, and so forth.
  • Top-down processing builds comprehension by comparing incoming signals to schema
    • Content schema: Your general knowledge of the world.
    • Textual schema: knowledge of language use and requirements in particular situations.
  • A mix is always used by listeners, though the nature of the mix differs significantly based on proficiency.
teaching listening
Teaching Listening
  • A typical lesson has three parts: pre-listening, listening, and post-listening
  • Pre-Listening
    • Motivation
    • Schema activation
    • Topics, vocabulary, structures, etc…
    • Readings, pictures, discussions, performances….
  • What kind of pre-listening ideas can you think of for the following listening text?
listening task
Listening Task
  • Listening Task
    • Problems with the listen and report approach.
      • Little resemblance to “real” listening tasks.
      • The comprehension activities don’t inform the teacher or learner as to where success and failures are caused.
      • Is the problem with listening comprehension or the inability to formulate a response?
    • Tasks are listening for a purpose.
      • Global Listening: listening for gist, for the overall main idea(s)
      • Listening for specific information
      • Making inferences
  • What listening tasks can you think of for this listening?
post listening
  • Post-Listening
    • Checking of answers
    • Comparing answers with peers
    • Further discussion of the topic of the listening
    • Use the language involved
    • Motivation
  • What post-listening tasks can you think of for this listening?
assessing listening
Assessing Listening
  • Assessment
    • Action and feedback on that action
      • Types: self, peer, teacher, automated
  • Formal assessment(testing)
    • These are assessments that are planned and attempt to measure classroom learning
  • Four key concepts
    • Validity
    • Reliability
    • Practicality
    • Washback
  • The test measures what it intends to measure.
    • This concept has many components, including: face and content validity (as well as predictive, concurrent, convergent, and discriminant validity)
    • The important thing to remember for your class is that your test should measure classroom learning, not writing, presentation skills, conversational skills, and so forth.
  • The test outcomes should be consistent
    • Similar scores for similar performances.
      • Example of scores from the first performances should be similarly scored as those from the last performances.
  • What is important for your class is that you should design assessments that can be consistently scored.
    • Some ways to help this are:
      • Rubrics
      • Benchmarks
      • Training (practice doing it before you do it for the real class)
  • Another term for practical is realistic.
  • The assessment should be something that can be done in your situation.
    • Ex, It may not be realistic to assess each of your students’ communication skills by hiring a native speaking interviewer.
      • You likely have too many students and too little funding and time to do this.
  • What appears on the test is likely to appear in instruction.
  • This is particularly important in the Korean context.
    • If it’s not part of the college entrance exam, it is de-valued.
  • Think about these issues when answering the Reflection questions on page 19
testing techniques
Testing Techniques
  • Discrete-item Tests
    • Multiple choice
  • Integrative Tests
    • Summarizing, fill-in-the-blank, dictation
  • Communicative Tests
    • Completion of a communicative task: writing, spoken, peformance
  • Interview Tests
  • Self-Assessment
    • Scoring based on criteria or holistic score of performance
  • Portfolio Assessment
    • Ongoing assessment (including any of the above) that focuses on the entirety of the learning experience and the display of growth based on artifacts.
assessment wrap up
Assessment Wrap Up
  • What kinds of assessment would you use to test student comprehension of this listening?