Intolerable Acts COLONIES Stamp Act Battle of Lexington 7 Years’ War end DECLARATION OF INDEPENDANCE Navigation Acts ROAD TO REVOLUTION 1763 - 1775
SEVEN YEAR’S WAR Review of Chapter 6 • End of the Seven Years’ War • Now the “Mother Country” had new goals • Expansion of colony trade (stricter enforcement of the Mercantilist system) • Payment for the expensive war
Broad Overview of Chapter 7 • Tensions built between the colonies and Britain. • Stricter implementation of Mercantilism system clashed with colonists’ belief in autonomy and self-government. • Political authority • Taxation • British bungles and colonist agitators force the tension to a breaking point.
Mercantilism Navigation Laws Sugar Act Quartering Act Stamp Act Stamp Act Congress Non-importation Agreements Declaratory Act Townshend Acts Boston Massacre / Crispus Attucks Committees of Correspondence Tea Act of 1773 Boston Tea Party / Thomas Hutchinson Intolerable Acts Quebec Act 1st Continental Congress Lexington & Concord American Revolution Chapter 7 Vocabulary By the end of this chapter, you should be able to identify, chronologically list, and explain the impact of the following:
1763 - NAVIGATION ACTS In the past had been loosely enforced Now royal governors began trying to enforce the Navigation Acts Help pay for the thousands of British troops still in North America. Support of the Mercantilist system Events Leading Up to War
1764 - SUGAR ACT In 1764 the Sugar Act replaced the Molasses Act (1733). The Molasses Act placed a tax on imported molasses which was needed to make rum. The Act had not been widely enforced and was circumvented by smuggling. The colonists raised their objections to the Sugar Act and eventually the taxes were lowered. Events Leading Up to War
Analyzing Original Documents Molasses ActMay 17/ 28, 1733 An act for the better securing and encouraging the trade of his Majesty's sugar colonies in America. WHEREAS the welfare and prosperity of your Majesty's sugar colonies in America are of the greatest consequence and importance to the trade, navigation and strength of this kingdom: and whereas the planters of the said sugar colonies have of late years fallen under such great discouragements, that they are unable to improve or carry on the sugar trade upon an equal footing with the foreign sugar colonies, without some advantage and relief be given to them from Great Britain: for remedy whereof . . . be it enacted . . .. That from and after . . . [December 25, 1733,] . . . there shall be raised, levied, collected and paid, unto and for the use of his Majesty . . ., upon all rum or spirits of the produce or manufacture of any of the colonies or plantations in America, not in the possession or under the dominion of his Majesty . . ., which at any time or times within or during the continuance of this act, shall be imported or brought into any of the colonies or plantations in America, which now are or hereafter may be in the possession or under the dominion of his Majesty . . ., the sum of nine pence, money of Great Britain, . . . for every gallon thereof, and after that rate for any greater or lesser quantity: and upon all molasses or syrups of such foreign produce or manufacture as aforesaid, which shall be imported or brought into any of the said colonies or plantations . .,, the sum of six pence of like money for every gallon thereof . . .; and upon all sugars and paneles of such foreign growth, produce or manufacture as aforesaid, which shall be imported into any of the said colonies or plantations . . .. a duty after the rate of five shillings of like money, for every hundred weight Avoirdupoize....
Analyzing Original Documents Sugar Act April 5, 1764An act for granting certain duties in the British colonies and plantations in America; for continuing, amending, and making perpetual . . . [the Molasses Act of I733] . . .; WHEREAS it is expedient that new provisions and regulations should be established for improving the revenue of this Kingdom, and for extending and securing the navigation and commerce between Great Britain and your Majesty's dominions in America, which, by the peace, have been so happily enlarged: and whereas it is just and necessary, that a revenue be raised, in your Majesty's said dominions in America, for defraying the expenses of defending, protecting, and securing the same; . . . be it enacted . . ., That from and after . . . [September 29, I764,] . . . .VI. And be it further enacted . . ., That in lieu and instead of the rate and duty imposed by the said act upon molasses and syrups, there shall, from and after. . . [September 29, I764] . . ., be raised, levied, collected, and paid, unto his Majesty . . ., for and upon every gallon of molasses or syrups, being the growth, produce, or manufacture, of any colony or plantation in America, not under the dominion of his Majesty . . ., which shall be imported or brought into any colony or plantation in America, which now is, or hereafter may be, under the dominion of his Majesty . . ., the sum of three pence.
Analyzing Original Documents Sugar Act (cont’d) April 5, 1764XI. And it is hereby further enacted . . ., That all the monies which, from and after . . . [September 29, I764] . . ., shall arise by the several rates and duties . . . shall be there reserved to be, from time to time, disposed of by parliament, towards defraying the necessary expences of defending, protecting, and securing, the British colonies and plantations in America.XVIII. And be it further enacted . . ., That from and after . . . [September 29, I764] . . ., no rum or spirits of the produce or manufacture of any of the colonies or plantations in America, not in the possession or under the dominion of his Majesty . . .. shall be imported or brought into any of the colonies or plantations in America which now are, or hereafter may be, in the possession or under the dominion of his Majesty . . ., upon forfeiture of all such rum or spirits, together with the ship or vessel in which the same shall be imported…
Analyzing Original DocumentsGROUP WORK • What reason was given by Britain for creating both acts? • What changed between the Molasses Act of 1733 and the Sugar Act of 1764? • Highlight key phrases • Why would the difference between these acts anger the colonists?
1765 - QUARTERING ACT Colonies must feed and house British troops at their own expense. Events Leading Up to War
1764 - CURRENCY ACT Events Leading up to War • The act prohibited the issue of any new bills and the reissue of existing currency. • Established what amounted to a "superior" Vice-admiralty court.
1765 – STAMP ACT A tax on printed material: Certain paper documents, including marriage certificates, legal documents, and even playing cards required a stamp to show that the tax had been paid. Benjamin Franklin suggested the colonist be given representation in Parliament, but this was rejected. Events Leading Up to War
1765 – STAMP ACT Events Leading Up to War
The cry of “no taxation without representation” was heard throughout the colonies. Nine colonies sent delegates to the Stamp Act Congress in New York in 1765. Stamp Act Congress
Analyzing Original Documents Resolutions of the Stamp Act Congress 19 October 1765 The members of this Congress, sincerely devoted with the warmest sentiments of affection and duty to His Majesty’s person and government . . . . That His Majesty’s liege subjects in these colonies are intitled [sic] to all the inherent rights and liberties of his natural born subjects within the kingdom of Great Britain. That it is inseparably essential to the freedom of a people, and the undoubted right of Englishmen, that no taxes be imposed on them but with their own consent, given personally or by their representative. That the people of these colonies are not, and from their local circumstances cannot be, represented in the House of Commons in Great Britain. That the only representative of the people of theses colonies are persons chosen therein by themselves, and that no taxes ever have been, or can be constitutionally imposed on them, but by their respective legislatures . . . . That trial by jury is the inherent and invaluable right of every British subject in these colonies. . . . XIII. . . . . humble applications to both Houses of Parliament, to procure the repeal of the Act for granting and applying certain stamp duties. . . .
Non-Importation Agreements • Colonists signed non-importation agreements promising to boycott British goods. • The boycott was enforced by patriots, often with the use of violence – mobs sacked the houses of stamp agents and hung them in effigy. • With the resignation of the stamp agents the British government was unable to enforce the tax. • In 1766 the Stamp Act was repealed, but immediately passes the Declaratory Act.
Review of the British Actions • 1763 • Enforcement of Navigation Laws • 1764 • Sugar Act • Quartering Act • Currency Act • Stamp Tax (repealed in 1766) How did each of these actions escalate the conflict between Britain and their American colonies?
1767 - TOWNSHEND ACTS In 1767 the Townshend Acts were passed, which taxed glass, paper, paint, and tea amongst other things. Townshend argued that his new legislation made any payment an indirect customs tax since it was payable at the ports. Acts are repealed – except for small tea tax. Events Leading Up to War
THE BOSTON MASSACRE On March 5, 1770 a large crowd started to torment a small British patrol. The British opened fire on the colonists. Eleven colonists are wounded or die including Crispus Attucks, a runaway slave. Events Leading Up to War
Committees of Correspondence • The idea was to keep other colonies informed about the affairs in Massachusetts. • Quickly, committees sprang up in other colonies. • By the end of 1773 every colony had a committee. • The committees spread ideas of rebellion throughout the colonies and keep anti-British feeling alive.
Massachusetts governor decides to be strict. Enforcement of the tea tax, due to financial problems with the British East India Company. Tea Time
BOSTONTEA PARTY DECEMBER 16, 1773 A group of colonials, thinly disguised as Indians, boarded the ships and threw the tea into Boston Harbor Events Leading Up to War
1774 - INTOLERABLE ACTS BOSTON PORT BILL MASSACHUSATES GOVERNMENT ACTS QUARTERING The same year the QUBEC ACT was passed. Events Leading Up to War
Continental Congress • The Congress was intended to find ways to settle the grievances with Britain. • 12 colonies sent representatives (Georgia was missing). • The Congress met for 7 weeks to discuss the situation. • The Congress drew up a Declaration of Rights, made an appeal to the king, and formed The Association. • The Association wanted a complete boycott of all British goods. • No one advocated revolution – but if the British did not act the Congress would meet again in 1775.
In early 1775 the British sent a detachment to Lexington and Concord to collect arms that had been hidden by the colonists. The British were met at Lexington by minutemen who refused to disperse and stood their ground. The British opened fire killing several before moving on to Concord. “The shot heard round the world”
Setup to the War On the eve of war, what were the strengths and weaknesses of each side? Think about social, political, cultural, economical, militarily, regionally, and ideologically.
Sources • http://tax.com/museum/1756-1776.htm • The American Pageant, 13th ed.