British Problems • Size of Empire and Colonies • Why is this a Problem? • Pontiac’s Rebellion 1763 • Indian uprising (1763-1766) led by Pontiac of the Ottawa's and Neolin of the Delawares. • Rebellion was put down and the British forced the Indians to give up some of their territory • Paxton Boys – Group of Pennsylvania colonist mad at government that massacred a group of Conestoga Indians.
Britain's Problems • Britain’s financial crisis • Debt because of war (130 million Pounds) • National debt doubled and King George III chooses financial expert George Grenville to serve as Prime Minister in 1763 (Though colonists were smuggling goods, and pushed parliament to enact laws) • Enact laws to recoup those costs • They thought the colonists should pay because British helped them.
Colonies and Britain begin to grow apart • Problems resulting from the war • British soldiers were stationed in the colonies and surrounding territories to control Natives and former French subjects (10,000 Troops) • Colonists saw this as a standing army – it was unheard of to have a standing army during peacetime
Colonies and Britain begin to grow apart • Writs of assistance 1761 • Allowed British customs officials to search a ship or building • Many merchants worked out of their homes – the writs enabled officials to search colonial homes • Merchants of Boston were outraged • Proclamation of 1763 • Stopped westward expansion • Angered colonists because they were promised expansion if they aided Britain in war (French and Indian War)
Colonies and Britain begin to grow apart • Quartering Acts • Acts of Parliament requiring colonial legislatures to provide supplies and quarters for the troops stationed in America • Why? What is the problem?
Colonies and Britain begin to grow apart • American Revenue act (Prime Minister George Grenville)– commonly known as the Sugar Act 1764–Purpose was “for improving the revenue of this kingdom” • Halved duty on foreign made molasses – hoping colonists would pay lower tax instead of risking smuggling • Placed high duties on other products • Strengthened smuggling laws – prosecutors would try smugglers in vice admiral courts rather than sympathetic colonial courts
Colonies and Britain begin to grow apart • By the end of 1764 the colonists and Britain were disagreeing more and more about how the colonies should be taxed and governed. • Stamp Act (March 1765) • Required colonists to purchase special stamped paper for every legal document, license, newspaper, pamphlet, almanac, and imposed special duties on playing cards and dice. • Problem? • Stamp Act was the First Internal tax (as apposed to an external trade duty)
Colonies and Britain begin to grow apart • Raised the question – Did Parliament have the right to impose direct taxes on Americans when Americans had no elected representatives in Parliament? (Taxation with out Representation?) • Grenville said following the principle of virtual representation – members of Parliament served the interests of the nation as a whole not just the locality from which they came.
Colonies and Britain begin to grow apart • Stamp Act Protests • Boston – Samuel Adams joined by merchants, shopkeepers, , and laborers, formed a secret resistance group called the Sons of Liberty. • Sons of Liberty harassed stamp agents and demonstrated/protested. • Stamp collectors quit before the law was to be enacted. No stamps were sold. • Sam Adams said, “when the People are oppressed,” they will be “discontented, and they are not to be blamed” • What does this mean? • Are they oppressed?
Colonies and Britain begin to grow apart • Different views on the role of government • During 1765 and 1766 each colonial assemblies met and addressed the stamp issue. • Patrick Henry – Virginias could only be taxed by the Virginia assembly, no one else – other colonial assemblies passed the same law.
Colonies and Britain begin to grow apart • Stamp Act Congress (October 1765 in New York) – Meeting of delegates sent by nine colonies, that adopted the Declaration of Rights and Grievances and petitioned against the Stamp Act • Declaration of Rights and Grievances – Asserts that the Stamp Act and other taxes imposed on the colonists without their consent were unconstitutional
Colonies and Britain begin to grow apart • Merchants in NY, Boston, and Philly boycott British goods until stamp act is repealed • This works and the Stamp Act is repealed in 1766, but Declaratory Act is issued • Declaratory Act – asserts Parliament’s full right to make laws “to bind the colonies and people of America in all cases whatsoever”
Colonies and Britain begin to grow apart • Townshend Acts – 1767 – indirect tax (tax levied on goods or services, as opposed to an individual – ultimately paid by the consumer in form of higher prices.) Taxes on imported goods such as glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea • Reaction • Colonists outraged, protested. “no taxation without representation” • Sam Adams calls for another Boycott. • Mery Otis Warren urged women to go with out their fine British furs, feathers, and satin. • Wealthy women stopped buying luxury British Items. Make their own clothing.
Colonies and Britain begin to grow apart • Reaction • 1768 – John Hancock’s ship accused of smuggling wine with out paying duty. Triggers riots and 2000 British soldiers had to be called in.
Colonies and Britain begin to grow apart • Boston Massacre – March 5th 1770 – Competition for jobs between colonists and poorly paid soldiers. Fist fight breaks out over jobs in the shipyard. • Mobs gathered outside the Custom House in Boston – mocked soldiers, calling them names and throwing tones and snowballs • Soldiers fire killing five including Crispus Attucks (African and Native descent, Sailor, Laborer) • Sam Adams and other colonial agitators label incident the Boston Massacre – slaying of defenseless citizens.
Colonies and Britain begin to grow apart • Quiet Period • 1774 Committees of Correspondence – communication network linking the colonies, tell each other of threats to American liberties • Tea was Boycotted • Colonists instead got their tea from the Dutch.
Colonies and Britain begin to grow apart • Boston Tea Party – December 16th,1773 • British East India company held a monopoly of tea imports and had been hit hard by the boycotts and was nearing bankruptcy • Parliament passes the Tea Act 1773 • Granted company the right to sell tea to the colonies free of tax. Means colonial merchants cut out because tea company could sell for less, directly to the consumers. • Colonists protest • Sam Adams reportedly told a large gathering at Old South Meeting House the signal to start the party. • 12/16/1773 in the evening, colonists dressed as Native Americans dumped 18,000 pounds of tea into the Boston Harbor. (Ship was the Dartmouth)
Colonies and Britain begin to grow apart • King George III was outraged by the colonists actions. In response the English passed the Coercive Acts (First was the Boston Port Act) • Then passed the Quebec Act • These two acts together became known as the Intolerable Acts (1774) • 1. One law shut down Boston Harbor • 2. Quartering Act – Authorized British officers to house soldiers in vacant private homes and other buildings • 3. General Thomas Gage, commander in chief of British forces in North America was appointed governor of Mass. • 4. Boston was placed under Martial Law – Government by military force
Colonies and Britain begin to grow apart • September 1774 – First Continental Congress • 56 Delegates met in Philadelphia and drew up a declaration of colonial rights • Said colonists have the right to run their own affairs, supported protests in Boston and if British used force the colonists would use it right back. • Agreed to reconvene in May 1775 if demands were not met.