Download
road to revolution n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Road to Revolution PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Road to Revolution

Road to Revolution

271 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Road to Revolution

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Road to Revolution

  2. Struggle for Control of N. America • Spanish and Dutch are non-factors • France & England are left • Minor conflicts amount to little change

  3. Albany Congress - 1754 • Albany Plan - First attempt at Union • Conceived by Ben Franklin • Why form a confederacy? • Protection • Natives • France • Inter-colonial expenses • Seven of the colonies attend and support this measure • The state governments reject the Plan • Unwilling to give up their colonial power

  4. French & Indian War (1754-1763) • Seven Years’ War - Fought in Europe and the Americas • Ohio Territory – both sides laid claim • French had forts • British began to settle there in 1740s

  5. How it started • Virginia land claims in Ohio Territory • George Washington the messenger – 1753 • Ft Duquesne • Washington returns in 1754 • First blood • Fort Necessity • Return to Virginia

  6. The War • British start poorly • French use guerrilla tactics • William Pitt takes command in 1758 • Replaced British commanders with Americans • Concentrated efforts in the New World • Took the offensive • British take Quebec in 1759 - the lifeblood of New France • French surrender in 1760 in Canada

  7. Treaty of Paris - 1763 • Why is the treaty signed 3 years after the war? • What were the terms of the Treaty of Paris – 1763? • Many French stayed in North America and became British citizens

  8. Post-War Tensions Between British and Americans • American military was not respected • Attitude of arrogance that infuriated colonials • View over contribution to victory • Americans traded with the French

  9. Additional Tensions • Taxes • Military presence in America remained high • Britain clamps down on colonies

  10. 1763 • George Grenville (Prime Minister) – 1763-1765 • Passed the Sugar Act & Stamp Act • Pontiac’s Rebellion • Proclamation Line of 1763 • Paxton Boys • Upset over Pontiac’s Rebellion and Proc Line

  11. Pontiac’s Rebellion • Native Americans did not sign Treaty of Paris • British no longer traded arms with Indians • Confederation of Indians formed in Ohio led by Pontiac – Ottawa Chief • The conflict ended in a stalemate • Side note: General Amherst, Governor at Ft. Pitt, distributed blankets infected with smallpox to native tribes. Epidemic spread and killed hundreds.

  12. Proclamation Line of 1763 • What was it? • Protection problem • King George III reserved this territory to Native Americans • British construct forts • People upset

  13. 1764 • Sugar Act (American Revenue Act) • Vice Admiralty Courts Established

  14. Taxation • The Americans had been taxed throughout the F&I War, but not to the extent of people in England • Tax on Americans at an all-time high • Britain needed the money to service the debt on the F&I War

  15. Sugar Act – (American Revenue Act) • Issued Spring, 1764 • What • Placed a 3 pence duty on sugar and molasses imported into the colonies • Add customs officials and more officers for ships • Increased jurisdiction of vice-admiralty courts • Why • Protection • Help pay for war

  16. Effects of Sugar Act • Would sting the American colonists pocketbook and would reduce smuggling which was a lucrative business. • James Otis, colonial orator from Mass claimed “no taxation w/o Representation” • The Rights of the British Colonies Asserted and Proved • British claimed virtual representation • James Otis also suggests a united colonial response to the taxation • Protests were relatively mild

  17. Committees of Correspondence • An organized means of communication between the colonies • June 1764 – Massachusetts house of reps organized a C of C to communicate grievances about the Sugar Act with the other colonies

  18. Non Importation Movements (Boycotts) • Organized boycotts - pledge to not buy imported goods from Britain • Effective • 1st was in Aug 1764 - reaction to the Sugar Act • Started in Boston and moved South Signing a boycott

  19. 1765 • Stamp Act • Quartering Acts • Virginia Resolutions • Sons of Liberty • Stamp Act Congress

  20. Stamp Act • Issued Spring, 1765 – took effect in Nov. • Must purchase a stamp and affix it to printed documents • Why? • Brits hoped to help pay for the cost of maintaining a military force in the colonies • Problems • Vice-admiralty courts • Direct taxation • Economic recession • Affected many prominent colonists

  21. Stamp Act Response • Argued taxation w/o representation again • Patrick Henry argued George III was becoming a tyrant • Sam Adams organized protests against the Stamp Act • Mob Action • Stamp collectors resigned Sam Adams Patrick Henry

  22. Quartering Acts • Colonial assemblies had to provide barracks and some supplies for British soldiers stationed in America. • Issued Spring, 1765 • Problems? • American jobs • Superiority complex • Military presence

  23. Virginia Resolutions • May 1765 - Patrick Henry • Only Virginia can tax Virginians - precedent • Opposed the idea of taxation w/o rep

  24. Circular Letter • June 1765 – Massachusetts General Court sends a circular letter to the other colonies • A measure proposed by James Otis to plan a meeting to get inter-colonial buy-in on opposition to the Stamp Act

  25. Sons of Liberty • Formed in response to the Stamp Act • All classes • Upper class – made speeches • Mid- to Lower – mob actions • Protest British taxation • Stamp agents all over country begin to resign under threats of violence Faneuil Hall - Boston

  26. Stamp Act Congress • Oct 7-25, 1785 - Delegates from nine of the 13 colonies met in NYC to come up with a unified colonial response to the Stamp Act. • John Dickenson writes - Declaration of Rights and Grievances: • We have no representation • We already tax ourselves, so now we’ll be double taxed • Vice-admiralty court jurisdiction is challenged • Indirect taxes v. Direct taxes • Demanded the repeal of the Stamp Act

  27. Stamp Act Reactions • Oct 1765, Non-importation movement in New York City later in Philly and Boston • Steep decline in British exports to America • British merchants begin to demand the repeal of the Stamp Act • Nov 1, 1765 – Stamp Act takes effect. • Business around the colonies is virtually suspended • Colonial Courts shut down. • Riots in NYC

  28. American Views on Taxation • The immediate issue here is taxes, but the overriding issue is just how much power does parliament have over the colonies (the structure of the imperial government). • Americans were concerned that if there was no line drawn, that parliament would bleed them white with taxes • External (indirect) taxes were ok because they applied to the overall management of the empire – e.g. trade regulations • Internal (direct) taxes targeted a specific entity…especially egregious when the target has no representation

  29. 1766 • Stamp Act Repealed • Declaratory Act

  30. Stamp Act Repealed • March 1766 • Couldn’t keep customs officials • Non-importation was taking a toll on Britain: 15% drop in imports • Grenville replaced: His successor, Lord Rockingham, repealed the Stamp Act in Spring 1766 • Non-importation movements are lifted

  31. Declaratory Act • March 1766 • Parliament has full authority to make laws binding in the colonies in all cases whatsoever • It was important for America to know that they were subjects of the empire and they could not make demands upon the Parliament • Colonies paid little attention

  32. 1767 • Townshend Duties • Writs of Assistance • American Response – non-importation

  33. Townshend Duties • Economic issues of debt and unemployment in England • “Champagne” Charlie Townshend • To alleviate financial pressures in England … • England placed a series of external taxes (duties) on popular imports like tea, paper, paint, lead, and glass • New custom officials hired • Writs of assistance • Vice admiralty courts • Issued Summer 1767, effective Nov 1767

  34. American Response to Townshend Duties • 2nd Non-importation Movement in Boston - • Daughters of Liberty make Homespun clothes • Dec 1767 - John Dickenson (Penn) – published Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania to the Inhabitants of the British Colonies

  35. 1768 • Sam Adams’s Circular Letter – Feb 1768 • April - The English government orders colonial governors to dissolve colonial legislatures if they endorse the letter • June – John Hancock's boat The Liberty –seized by customs officials • Colonial mobs force customs officials to leave Boston • The officials send word that they need military intervention

  36. 1768 (continued) • July – Massachusetts governor dissolves the General Court for supporting Adams's circular letter. • August – Boston merchants ramp up non-importation pact that bans Townshend Act items. NYC then bans all British goods until Townshend Acts are repealed • Sept – People of Massachusetts hold an informal conference since the General Court is gone. They are encouraged to arm. They compose a list of grievances • Oct - British troops occupy Boston - Boston is where the main resistance and hostility is located. Attempts to intimidate customs officials and attempts to rally other colonies raised a red flag in England. So, the English send two additional regiments of troops to Boston. These troops are rather green.

  37. 1770 • 1769 is rather quiet • Boston Massacre • Townshend Duties Repealed • Quartering Act is not renewed

  38. Boston Massacre • March 5, 1770 • British fire on Bostonians • John Adams defends • It became famous from the Paul Revere print of soldiers firing upon colonists Paul Revere’s Print

  39. Tensions Ease • April - Townshend Duties repealed • April - Quartering Act is allowed to expire without renewal • All cities begin to abandon the non-importation agreements • Tensions between England and the American colonies begin to relax

  40. 1772 • 1771 is a quiet year • June - Gaspee burned • Nov - Committees of Correspondence formed by Sam Adams

  41. 1773 • Tea Act • Boston Tea Party

  42. Tea Act • Mar - Virginia establishes their committee of correspondence • April - Tea Act • July – RI, CN, NH, SC all form committees of correspondence

  43. Boston Tea Party – Dec 1773 • Tea ships are not allowed to leave harbor until Boston pays the duty for the tea on board • Colonists do not want to set precedent • This same activity was done in other colonies once word spread.

  44. 1774 • Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts) • 1st Continental Congress

  45. Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts) • British response to the Tea Party – Spring 1774 – terminated self rule in Massachusetts • Boston Port Act • Massachusetts Government Act • Administration of Justice Act • June – amended Quartering Act - Legalized the housing of British troops in colonial homes • Get the troops closer to Boston

  46. Quebec Act • Gave Ohio Valley to Quebec • British tyranny attempting to remove their rights as British citizens

  47. 1st Continental Congress • Carpenter's Hall - Philadelphia 1774 – Sept 5 – Oct 26 • Peyton Randolph (Va) elected President of the proceedings • The delegates favored a policy of economic coercion rather than provoking war • What happened • Declaration and Resolves of the 1st Cont Congress • The Association • Committees of Observation and Safety • Determined they would reconvene in the Spring for the 2nd Cont Congress

  48. 1775 • Lexington/Concord • 2nd Continental Congress • Bunker Hill

  49. Tensions Build • Feb – Parliament declares Massachusetts in a state of rebellion • March – Patrick Henry gives a speech denouncing arbitrary British rule.. says "Give me liberty or give me death" • April – Thomas Gage is given orders from England to enforce Coercive Acts and prevent any military buildup of colonials

  50. Lexington/Concord–Apr 18, 1775 • British march to Concord • William Dawes and Paul Revere alert the countryside • Lexington – “shot heard round the world” • The Brits marched to Concord