1 / 54

Road to Revolution

Road to Revolution. Struggle for Control of N. America. Spanish and Dutch are non-factors France & England are left Minor conflicts amount to little change. Albany Congress - 1754. Albany Plan - First attempt at Union Conceived by Ben Franklin Why form a confederacy? Protection Natives

Download Presentation

Road to Revolution

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript

  1. Road to Revolution

  2. Struggle for Control of N. America • Spanish and Dutch are non-factors • France & England are left • Minor conflicts amount to little change

  3. Albany Congress - 1754 • Albany Plan - First attempt at Union • Conceived by Ben Franklin • Why form a confederacy? • Protection • Natives • France • Inter-colonial expenses • Seven of the colonies attend and support this measure • The state governments reject the Plan • Unwilling to give up their colonial power

  4. French & Indian War (1754-1763) • Seven Years’ War - Fought in Europe and the Americas • Ohio Territory – both sides laid claim • French had forts • British began to settle there in 1740s

  5. How it started • Virginia land claims in Ohio Territory • George Washington the messenger – 1753 • Ft Duquesne • Washington returns in 1754 • First blood • Fort Necessity • Return to Virginia

  6. The War • British start poorly • French use guerrilla tactics • William Pitt takes command in 1758 • Replaced British commanders with Americans • Concentrated efforts in the New World • Took the offensive • British take Quebec in 1759 - the lifeblood of New France • French surrender in 1760 in Canada

  7. Treaty of Paris - 1763 • Why is the treaty signed 3 years after the war? • What were the terms of the Treaty of Paris – 1763? • Many French stayed in North America and became British citizens

  8. Post-War Tensions Between British and Americans • American military was not respected • Attitude of arrogance that infuriated colonials • View over contribution to victory • Americans traded with the French

  9. Additional Tensions • Taxes • Military presence in America remained high • Britain clamps down on colonies

  10. 1763 • George Grenville (Prime Minister) – 1763-1765 • Passed the Sugar Act & Stamp Act • Pontiac’s Rebellion • Proclamation Line of 1763 • Paxton Boys • Upset over Pontiac’s Rebellion and Proc Line

  11. Pontiac’s Rebellion • Native Americans did not sign Treaty of Paris • British no longer traded arms with Indians • Confederation of Indians formed in Ohio led by Pontiac – Ottawa Chief • The conflict ended in a stalemate • Side note: General Amherst, Governor at Ft. Pitt, distributed blankets infected with smallpox to native tribes. Epidemic spread and killed hundreds.

  12. Proclamation Line of 1763 • What was it? • Protection problem • King George III reserved this territory to Native Americans • British construct forts • People upset

  13. 1764 • Sugar Act (American Revenue Act) • Vice Admiralty Courts Established

  14. Taxation • The Americans had been taxed throughout the F&I War, but not to the extent of people in England • Tax on Americans at an all-time high • Britain needed the money to service the debt on the F&I War

  15. Sugar Act – (American Revenue Act) • Issued Spring, 1764 • What • Placed a 3 pence duty on sugar and molasses imported into the colonies • Add customs officials and more officers for ships • Increased jurisdiction of vice-admiralty courts • Why • Protection • Help pay for war

  16. Effects of Sugar Act • Would sting the American colonists pocketbook and would reduce smuggling which was a lucrative business. • James Otis, colonial orator from Mass claimed “no taxation w/o Representation” • The Rights of the British Colonies Asserted and Proved • British claimed virtual representation • James Otis also suggests a united colonial response to the taxation • Protests were relatively mild

  17. Committees of Correspondence • An organized means of communication between the colonies • June 1764 – Massachusetts house of reps organized a C of C to communicate grievances about the Sugar Act with the other colonies

  18. Non Importation Movements (Boycotts) • Organized boycotts - pledge to not buy imported goods from Britain • Effective • 1st was in Aug 1764 - reaction to the Sugar Act • Started in Boston and moved South Signing a boycott

  19. 1765 • Stamp Act • Quartering Acts • Virginia Resolutions • Sons of Liberty • Stamp Act Congress

  20. Stamp Act • Issued Spring, 1765 – took effect in Nov. • Must purchase a stamp and affix it to printed documents • Why? • Brits hoped to help pay for the cost of maintaining a military force in the colonies • Problems • Vice-admiralty courts • Direct taxation • Economic recession • Affected many prominent colonists

  21. Stamp Act Response • Argued taxation w/o representation again • Patrick Henry argued George III was becoming a tyrant • Sam Adams organized protests against the Stamp Act • Mob Action • Stamp collectors resigned Sam Adams Patrick Henry

  22. Quartering Acts • Colonial assemblies had to provide barracks and some supplies for British soldiers stationed in America. • Issued Spring, 1765 • Problems? • American jobs • Superiority complex • Military presence

  23. Virginia Resolutions • May 1765 - Patrick Henry • Only Virginia can tax Virginians - precedent • Opposed the idea of taxation w/o rep

  24. Circular Letter • June 1765 – Massachusetts General Court sends a circular letter to the other colonies • A measure proposed by James Otis to plan a meeting to get inter-colonial buy-in on opposition to the Stamp Act

  25. Sons of Liberty • Formed in response to the Stamp Act • All classes • Upper class – made speeches • Mid- to Lower – mob actions • Protest British taxation • Stamp agents all over country begin to resign under threats of violence Faneuil Hall - Boston

  26. Stamp Act Congress • Oct 7-25, 1785 - Delegates from nine of the 13 colonies met in NYC to come up with a unified colonial response to the Stamp Act. • John Dickenson writes - Declaration of Rights and Grievances: • We have no representation • We already tax ourselves, so now we’ll be double taxed • Vice-admiralty court jurisdiction is challenged • Indirect taxes v. Direct taxes • Demanded the repeal of the Stamp Act

  27. Stamp Act Reactions • Oct 1765, Non-importation movement in New York City later in Philly and Boston • Steep decline in British exports to America • British merchants begin to demand the repeal of the Stamp Act • Nov 1, 1765 – Stamp Act takes effect. • Business around the colonies is virtually suspended • Colonial Courts shut down. • Riots in NYC

  28. American Views on Taxation • The immediate issue here is taxes, but the overriding issue is just how much power does parliament have over the colonies (the structure of the imperial government). • Americans were concerned that if there was no line drawn, that parliament would bleed them white with taxes • External (indirect) taxes were ok because they applied to the overall management of the empire – e.g. trade regulations • Internal (direct) taxes targeted a specific entity…especially egregious when the target has no representation

  29. 1766 • Stamp Act Repealed • Declaratory Act

  30. Stamp Act Repealed • March 1766 • Couldn’t keep customs officials • Non-importation was taking a toll on Britain: 15% drop in imports • Grenville replaced: His successor, Lord Rockingham, repealed the Stamp Act in Spring 1766 • Non-importation movements are lifted

  31. Declaratory Act • March 1766 • Parliament has full authority to make laws binding in the colonies in all cases whatsoever • It was important for America to know that they were subjects of the empire and they could not make demands upon the Parliament • Colonies paid little attention

  32. 1767 • Townshend Duties • Writs of Assistance • American Response – non-importation

  33. Townshend Duties • Economic issues of debt and unemployment in England • “Champagne” Charlie Townshend • To alleviate financial pressures in England … • England placed a series of external taxes (duties) on popular imports like tea, paper, paint, lead, and glass • New custom officials hired • Writs of assistance • Vice admiralty courts • Issued Summer 1767, effective Nov 1767

  34. American Response to Townshend Duties • 2nd Non-importation Movement in Boston - • Daughters of Liberty make Homespun clothes • Dec 1767 - John Dickenson (Penn) – published Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania to the Inhabitants of the British Colonies

  35. 1768 • Sam Adams’s Circular Letter – Feb 1768 • April - The English government orders colonial governors to dissolve colonial legislatures if they endorse the letter • June – John Hancock's boat The Liberty –seized by customs officials • Colonial mobs force customs officials to leave Boston • The officials send word that they need military intervention

  36. 1768 (continued) • July – Massachusetts governor dissolves the General Court for supporting Adams's circular letter. • August – Boston merchants ramp up non-importation pact that bans Townshend Act items. NYC then bans all British goods until Townshend Acts are repealed • Sept – People of Massachusetts hold an informal conference since the General Court is gone. They are encouraged to arm. They compose a list of grievances • Oct - British troops occupy Boston - Boston is where the main resistance and hostility is located. Attempts to intimidate customs officials and attempts to rally other colonies raised a red flag in England. So, the English send two additional regiments of troops to Boston. These troops are rather green.

  37. 1770 • 1769 is rather quiet • Boston Massacre • Townshend Duties Repealed • Quartering Act is not renewed

  38. Boston Massacre • March 5, 1770 • British fire on Bostonians • John Adams defends • It became famous from the Paul Revere print of soldiers firing upon colonists Paul Revere’s Print

  39. Tensions Ease • April - Townshend Duties repealed • April - Quartering Act is allowed to expire without renewal • All cities begin to abandon the non-importation agreements • Tensions between England and the American colonies begin to relax

  40. 1772 • 1771 is a quiet year • June - Gaspee burned • Nov - Committees of Correspondence formed by Sam Adams

  41. 1773 • Tea Act • Boston Tea Party

  42. Tea Act • Mar - Virginia establishes their committee of correspondence • April - Tea Act • July – RI, CN, NH, SC all form committees of correspondence

  43. Boston Tea Party – Dec 1773 • Tea ships are not allowed to leave harbor until Boston pays the duty for the tea on board • Colonists do not want to set precedent • This same activity was done in other colonies once word spread.

  44. 1774 • Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts) • 1st Continental Congress

  45. Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts) • British response to the Tea Party – Spring 1774 – terminated self rule in Massachusetts • Boston Port Act • Massachusetts Government Act • Administration of Justice Act • June – amended Quartering Act - Legalized the housing of British troops in colonial homes • Get the troops closer to Boston

  46. Quebec Act • Gave Ohio Valley to Quebec • British tyranny attempting to remove their rights as British citizens

  47. 1st Continental Congress • Carpenter's Hall - Philadelphia 1774 – Sept 5 – Oct 26 • Peyton Randolph (Va) elected President of the proceedings • The delegates favored a policy of economic coercion rather than provoking war • What happened • Declaration and Resolves of the 1st Cont Congress • The Association • Committees of Observation and Safety • Determined they would reconvene in the Spring for the 2nd Cont Congress

  48. 1775 • Lexington/Concord • 2nd Continental Congress • Bunker Hill

  49. Tensions Build • Feb – Parliament declares Massachusetts in a state of rebellion • March – Patrick Henry gives a speech denouncing arbitrary British rule.. says "Give me liberty or give me death" • April – Thomas Gage is given orders from England to enforce Coercive Acts and prevent any military buildup of colonials

  50. Lexington/Concord–Apr 18, 1775 • British march to Concord • William Dawes and Paul Revere alert the countryside • Lexington – “shot heard round the world” • The Brits marched to Concord

More Related