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  1. Chapter 1 What Is Fashion? Introducing Fashion Fashion History

  2. Chapter Objectives • Explain the different definitions of fashion. • Identify the merchandise categories of fashion. • Explain the difference between style and design. • Identify the needs satisfied by clothing. • Discuss the early history of clothing. • Name some influential people in fashion industry. • Identify specific styles in the 20th century.

  3. Fashion Defined Definitions of Fashion In the apparel industry, fashion is the existing type of clothing that is preferred by a large segment of the public. To many people, fashion is a current trend that is popular for frivolous reasons. To some people, fashion is a precise style of dress or behavior that is acceptable in one year, but not in another. To retailers, fashion is whatever is currently selling. To sociologists, fashion represents a way of social interaction and status seeking. Section 1.1 4

  4. Merchandise Categories Fashion retailers group merchandise into categories—basic merchandise and fashion merchandise. fashion merchandisegoods that are popular at a particular time staple itemsbasic merchandise that customers purchase on a regular basis Staple items are in the basic merchandise category. Section 1.1

  5. Fashion Basics To be successful in the fashion industry, designers, producers, marketers, and retailers must have an understanding of basic fashion terms, such as style and design. style a particular shape or type of apparel item identified by the distinct features that make it unique designa particular or unique version of a style because of a specific arrangement of the basic design elements Section 1.1

  6. Fashion Basics A retail customer may select a garment based on its color. garment any article of clothing, such as a dress, suit, coat, or sweater Section 1.1

  7. Fashion Basics The three dimensions of color are: • Hue—the quality of the color • Value—the lightness or darkness of a color • Intensity—the brightness or dullness of a color Section 1.1

  8. Fashion Basics • Line is an element of design that directs the path of eye movement. • Shape, or silhouette, is the overall form or outline of a garment. • Texture is how the surface of a material, or fabric, feels and looks. • Function refers to the intended use or purpose of an object. Section 1.1

  9. Fashion Basics Design Elements Color Line Texture Shape Section 1.1 10

  10. What Are Fashion Products? Fashion is anything that has strong appeal at a given time. Fashion is usually determined by taste. Taste refers to the current opinion of what is attractive and appropriate for an individual and occasion. Section 1.1

  11. What Are Fashion Products? Fashion products include: Clothing Accessories Home Furnishings Section 1.1

  12. The Importance of Fashion Economic and political trends, current events, and social issues are often reflected in fashion. Fashion serves as a historical record of culture and lifestyle. Section 1.1

  13. Importance to People Personal appearance can identify social position and reflect a person’s self-image. Section 1.1

  14. Economic Importance Fashion is one of the world’s largest industries. It affects the global economy and local economies. Section 1.1

  15. Economic Importance Fashion can be a reflection of the economic environment. When people are unable to satisfy their basic needs for food and shelter, style becomes less important. Section 1.1

  16. 1.1 What is the difference between style and design? What are four basic elements of design? How do economic conditions affect fashion? 1. 2. 3. Section 1.1

  17. Quick Check Answers • Style is a particular shape or type of apparel item identified by the distinct features that make it unique. However, design is a particular or unique version of a style because of a specific arrangement of the basic design elements. • color, line, shape, and texture • Clothing is a reflection of the economy. When people cannot satisfy basic needs for food and shelter, style is less important.

  18. Earliest Clothing The earliest clothing dates from about 20,000 B.C. The earliest clothes were developed primarily for protection from the weather and environment. The earliest clothes were made of fur, animal skin, leaves, and grass. Section 1.2

  19. Why People Wear Clothes People have three basic clothing needs: • Physical needs: protection and safety • Psychological needs: appearance enhancement • Social needs: affiliation and standards Section 1.2

  20. Physical Needs • protection • safety PsychologicalNeeds Social Needs • identity • adornment • cultural identity • affiliation/fitting in • standards Why People Wear Clothes Why Clothing? Section 1.2 21

  21. Sources of Clothing History The evolution of dress can represent a visual history of a culture. Sources of clothing history include: Actualgarments Oldpaintings Fashionpublications Photographs Writtenpublications Section 1.2

  22. Fashion Through the Ages Centuries ago, people dressed according to what society allowed for the social classes. The wealthy class dictated fashion. During the 18th century, political and social shifts contributed to the growth and influence of the middle or working class. Section 1.2

  23. Fashion Through the Ages During the Industrial Revolution of the 1800s, garments began being mass-produced. The invention of photography influenced the spread of styles. The fashion magazine Vogue was first published in 1892. Section 1.2

  24. Historical Trendsetters • Elizabeth I • Clothing indicator of social status • Louis XIV • Sent life-size fashion dolls to every European court • Marie Antoinette • Trendsetter for ornate styles Section 1.2

  25. Historical Trendsetters • George Bryan “Beau” Brummell • Dandyism dandyism during the 1880s, a style of dress for men and a lifestyle that celebrated elegance and refinement • Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis • Understated elegance • The Beatles • “Mop-top” hairstyles Section 1.2

  26. Fashion: 20th Century to the Present The Early 1900s • In 1909, Vogue features new loose-fitting clothing for women. • Women stop wearing corsets. • Skirts get slightly shorter. • The invention of rayon leads to more functional clothing. Section 1.2

  27. Fashion: 20th Century to the Present The 1920s • Gabrielle “Coco” Chanel introduces sportswear garments and trousers for everyday wear. • Chanel promotes the style of the “flappers.” • Chanel introduces the “little black dress.” • The “one-hour dress” is invented by the Women’s Fashion Institute. • Styles are simpler. Section 1.2

  28. Fashion: 20th Century to the Present The 1930s–1950s • Movie stars set trends for hair, makeup, and clothes. • Nylon is invented by DuPont. • To save fabric during wartime, hemlines become shorter. • Simple styles represent patriotism during wartime. • American designers become more prominent. Section 1.2

  29. Fashion: 20th Century to the Present The 1930s–1950s New Look a style of the 1940s that featured long hemlines, narrow shoulders, and tightly fitted bodices with long, full, or narrow skirts • Women’s styles become more traditionally feminine in the 1950s. • Christian Dior launches a new style in 1947 called the New Look. Section 1.2

  30. Fashion: 20th Century to the Present The 1960s hippie style of the 1960s, a fashion consisting of clothing from the Middle and Far East, bright colors, peasant embroidery, cheesecloth, and safari jackets • Social changes, world events, and music affect fashion. • New synthetic fibers are invented. • Hippie style appears. Section 1.2

  31. Fashion: 20th Century to the Present The 1970s disco style of the 1970s, a fashion consisting of gold lamé, leopard print, stretch halter jumpsuits, and white clothing that glowed under ultraviolet lighting • Disco style appears. Section 1.2

  32. Fashion: 20th Century to the Present The 1970s punk fashion of the 1970s, a style featuring intentionally torn clothing worn by young people with limited income, such as students and the unemployed • Punk fashion appears. Section 1.2

  33. Fashion: 20th Century to the Present The 1970s feminist movement of the 1970s, the organized effort to establish equal social, economic, and political rights and opportunities for women; influenced women’s fashions with shorter hemlines and the pantsuit for the workplace • Feminist movement influences women’s styles. Section 1.2

  34. Fashion: 20th Century to the Present The 1980s • Professional women adopt “the power look.” • Business-casual attire appears. • High-quality products become available at moderate prices. • Stretchy, synthetic athletic wear becomes popular. Section 1.2

  35. Fashion: 20th Century to the Present The 1990s grunge a style started by the youth culture in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States in the early 1990s; it is messy, uncombed, and disheveled • Americans begin dressing less formally. • Grunge style appears. • Fashion industry begins to lose the ability to dictate trends. Section 1.2

  36. Fashion: 20th Century to the Present Fashion Today • Consumers make well-informed choices about what to wear, where to shop, and how much to spend on products. • Fashion makers and marketers need to be more informed and aware of customer wants and needs. Section 1.2

  37. Celebrity Fashion History Historical fashions remind people of a time and place. When Jennifer Lopez launched her new perfume Still, she wanted to attract a more sophisticated consumer than the 15- to 25-year olds who spent $40 million in 2002 on her first scent Glow. Operating an e-tail business on an electronic channel—the Web—can be costly, due to design, delivery, returns, and operating expenses. Though Many larger dot-com companies crashed in the 1990’s, small stores like Harris Cyclery of West Newton, Massachusetts, actually increase sales using a basic Web site. Today, a third of Harris’s bicycle business rides in on the Web to get hard-to-find parts and personal service. Describe an e-business’s home page to your class after viewing one through The ad campaign for Still was designed to highlight Jennifer Lopez’s movie-star glamour. It featured her in a 1950s Marilyn Monroe dress and curls. The advertising campaign uses all media, including the Internet and Lopez’s official Web site, to reach the widest possible market. For more information, go to Section 1.2 38

  38. 1.2 What three basic needs are satisfied by the use of clothing? How did World War II affect the fashion industry? What fashion trends emerged in the 1980s? 1. 2. 3. Section 1.2

  39. 1. 2. 3. 4. Retailers view fashion as whatever is currently selling. Style is a particular shape or type of apparel item, such as a mini-skirt or Capri pants, identified by the distinct features that make it unique. Style becomes fashion when it becomes popular. The four elements of design include: color, with dimensions of hue, value, and intensity; line, or distinct, elongated marks that direct the path of eye movement; shape, the overall form or outline of a garment; and texture, or how the surface of a material feels and looks. physical needs, psychological needs, and social needs Checking Concepts • Define fashion according to retailers. • Explain the meaning of style. • Discuss the four elements of design. • Name three needs satisfied by clothing. continued

  40. 5. 6. 7. Early clothing was made of natural products such as fur, animal skin, leaves, and grass. Queen Elizabeth I 1940s fashion was affected by Hollywood styles, World War II, technological developments such as synthetic fibers, and French designer Christian Dior. Checking Concepts • Identify the materials used to make clothing as early as 20,000 B.C. • Name a person in England who influenced fashion in the 16th century. • Identify some factors that affected fashion in the 1940s. continued

  41. 8. The feminist movement focused on social, economic, and political equality for women, and influenced styles such as shorter skirts and the pantsuit for the workplace. Checking Concepts Critical Thinking • Discuss how the feminist movement may have influenced clothing styles in the 1970s.

  42. End of