FOREIGN POLICY • Def’n: The strategies and goals that guide a nation’s relations with other countries and groups in the world • Every government’s sovereign right to conduct external relations as it sees fit. Can send/receive/recall ambassadors, choose not to recognize nations. • EX: U.S. did not recognize USSR until 1934 or Red China until 1979. • Diplomatic Immunity—Why? • Foreign policy in the U.S. is bipartisan and consistent.
Goals of Foreign Policy • National Security • Free, fair, and open foreign trade (GATT WTO) • World Peace • Democratic Transitions • Humanitarianism (eliminated genocide in Bosnia, 1990s) • State Department maintains embassies and consulates abroad to help travelers
Who conducts Foreign Policy? • Primarily Presidential prerogative: controls Armed Forces, appoints Sec. Of State & Ambassadors, makes Treaties, right of legation) • Assisted by Secretary of State, who heads State Department (Powell) • Secretary of Defense (Rumsfeld) • National Security Advisor (prominent position, Kissinger used it as stepping stone, Rice) • Director of Central Intelligence Agency (Tenet, Bush 41 at one time) • Congress may “declare war,” not advisable under International law sometimes, also appropriates $, passes joint resolutions, allows for MFN, ratifies treaties, confirms appointments
History of U.S. Foreign Policy • Isolationism (Republicans used to advocate, Sen. Lodge in 1920, Sen. Vandenberg in 30s) • World Power: Involved in WWI and II • Cold War: U.S. leads free world against Soviet Union and satellites (chief method: Containment, advocated by George Kennan) • Korea/Vietnam • Détente (1970s w/USSR, “playing China card,” led to ABM and SALT I/II) • Reagan takes harder line, “Evil Empire” • 1st Persian Gulf War • War on Terrorism/2nd Persian Gulf War • Next?????
Presidential Doctrines • Monroe—No European intervention in Latin America; sphere of interest for U.S. (1815) • Roosevelt Corollary--As part of his annual address to Congress in 1904, President Theodore Roosevelt stated that in keeping with the Monroe Doctrine the United States was justified in exercising "international police power" to put an end to chronic unrest or wrongdoing in the Western Hemisphere. This so-called Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine contained a great irony: whereas the Monroe Doctrine had been sought to prevent European intervention in the Western Hemisphere, the Roosevelt Corollary justified American intervention throughout the Western Hemisphere.)
Stimson Doctrine (1931) • As Secretary of State, Stimson opposed Japan's seizure of Manchuria in 1931 by issuing a warning known as the Stimson Doctrine. • The doctrine stated that the United States would recognize no changes made in Manchuria (or anywhere else, really) in violation of treaties. But Hoover refused Stimson's call for an economic boycott of Japan.
Truman Doctrine (1948)… • The Truman Doctrine was a plan to help states going through a struggle for freedom against their oppressors. • President Truman said, "I believe it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures." • The Truman Doctrine instituted a policy of containment; Communism would be limited only to areas already under Soviet control, and Americans would resist Soviet expansion.
Eisenhower Doctrine • Eisenhower--The Eisenhower Doctrine was initiated on March 9, 1957. This second major post-war doctrine asserted the right of the United States to employ force, if necessary, to assist any nation or group of nations in the general region of the Middle East requesting assistance against armed aggression from any country controlled by international communism. • The Eisenhower doctrine resulted from the apparent increase in Soviet influence in Syria and Egypt and the threat of Soviet assistance to Egypt during the Suez Crisis in 1956. As formulated, United States assistance was to be based upon a request from any endangered country; however, the doctrine was to be evoked only in the event of external, communist armed aggression, and was not to be applied in response to an internal insurrection or civil war. • Eisenhower favored MAD (second Eisenhower Doctrine) • Kennedy—”flexible response” replaces MAD; less effective in practice
Nixon Doctrine • The Nixon Doctrine represented a major shift in US international policy and set the guidelines for an American policy emphasizing cooperative security. The Doctrine enunciated new foreign policy guidelines. • Initially limited to Asian nations, the doctrine was later broadened to encompass the entire globe, and was renamed for Nixon. • Although the United States would continue to bear responsibility for the deterrence of nuclear and conventional war, the responsibility for the deterrence of localized wars would rest with the countries threatened by such wars. • The United States would continue to furnish limited grant assistance to such countries, but they would be expected to assume primary responsibility for their own defense, including the marshaling of the necessary manpower and resources. The major effort must be made by the governments of these states. • The doctrine was mainly a product of public reaction against the major but largely unsuccessful military intervention by the United States in Vietnam during the 1960s. • As policy, its promulgation was directly related to the efforts of the Nixon Administration to extricate American forces from Indochina.
Carter Doctrine • Enunciated by President Jimmy Carter in 1980, stating that "An attempt by any outside forces to gain control of the Persian Gulf region will be regarded as an assault on the vital interests of the United States of America, and such an assault will be repelled by any means necessary, including military force." • Was put to the test after Iraq invaded Kuwait in 1990. • The resulting Persian Gulf war in 1991 showed that the U.S. did regard the attempt by a belligerent country to gain control of more than its allocated share of the region to be an assault on the vital interests of the U.S.
Reagan Doctrine (1985) • Reagan announced in his State of the Union address in 1985, "We must not break faith with those who are risking their lives on every continent . . . to defy Soviet-supported aggression and secure rights which have been ours from birth . . . Support for freedom fighters is self-defense." • The Reagan administration advocated this policy for three main reasons: 1) Anti-communist rebels should be supported because they were fighting for an end to tyranny. 2) If they were defeated their countries would fall under Soviet domination. 3) It was necessary to back anti-communist rebels because defending freedom was a long-established American tradition. The policy was applied to rebel movements in Afghanistan, Angola, Cambodia, and Nicaragua. Iran-Contra ramifications.
Bush Doctrine (2001) • Nations that are victims of terrorism have the right to reprisal. • Used to justify Afghanistan bombing campaign/removal of Al Qaida and Taleban • Corollary permits preemption to remove future threats to U.S. Security (Iraq and WMD)
Key Challenges • Interdependence (Asian Economic crisis, Terrorism) • Regional Trade Agreements (NAFTA) • NATO Alliance—what should it’s role be (no Cold War need, did work well in fmr. Yugoslavia)
The Defense Department • Established 1789 as War Department, reorganized 1947 to include AF • Largest government employer: 700,000 civilians and 1 million mil. • Branches and rivalries, esp. after World War II • Joint Chiefs of Staff report to Prez • Volunteer Military with registration
U.S. Membership in Organizations • United Nations, 1945 (World Bank, WHO, all UN organizations • Rio Treaty leads to OAS, 1947 • NATO, 1949 • ANZUS, 1951 (New Zealand inactive) • SEATO now dead • NAFTA w/Canada and Mexico
The United Nations (UN) • General Assembly, about 180 member countries. Forum for discussion. • Security Council (15, 5 permanent members w/ absolute veto: US, UK, FRA, PRC, Russia). Other 10—2 yr. Rotating terms. Must authorize military action and sanctions through resolutions (9 votes) • ECOSOC, various other committees • IMF and World Bank (originally International Bank for Reconstruction and Development) • International Court of Justice (ICJ) in The Hague • International Criminal Court????
NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization • Formed April 4, 1949—Collective Security Alliance (Article V, invoked 9-2001 for the first time) • Belgium, Canada,Denmark, France, W. Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg,Netherlands, Norway, Portugal,Turkey,United Kingdom, US • Spain joined 1982, Germany 1990, Poland, Hungary, and Czech Republic in 1999 • Slovenia and Ukraine possible, along with Baltics, theoretically so is Russia (unlikely, given partnership and pol. Situation) • Partnership with Russia • Dialogue with Mediterranean countries like Morocco
Case Studies in Foreign Policy • US use of force in history: over 200 times, from small covert to World War II • Spanish-American War • Panama Canal • World War I and II • Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 • Invasion of Grenada, 1983 • Iran-Contra Scandal, mid 1980s • Attack on Libya, 1986 • Persian Gulf Wars, 1991 and 2003