Chapter 1. The school as a Social System. Chapter Overview VIDEO. B = f (S x I) Behavior is a function of the interaction of bureaucratic role expectations and the relevant work orientations of the organizational member. . Theory. Pages 1-8. Theory (1-8). Theory and Science Theory
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Chapter 1 The school as a Social System
Chapter Overview VIDEO • B = f (S x I) • Behavior is a function of the interaction of bureaucratic role expectations and the relevant work orientations of the organizational member.
Theory Pages 1-8
Theory (1-8) • Theory and Science • Theory • Concepts • Generalizations • Theory and Reality • Theory and Research • Hypothesis: Figure 1.1 • Theory and Practice
Systems perspective Pages 8-17
Systems • Rational System: A Machine Model • Natural System: An Organic Model • Open System: An Integration
Rational-systems perspective • Views organizations as formal instruments designed to achieve specific organizational goals.
Scientific management: The Beginning • Time and motion studies • Division of Labor • Standardization • Span of Control • Principle of homogeneity
Contemporary Rational Systems • Goals • Formalization • Exception principle
Theory Into Practice Exercise (13) • Name each person in your school who has formal authority over teachers. What is the role of each? Their titles? How much formal authority do they have and how do they exert it? Give examples. • Describe the division of labor and specialization in the school. Is there a narrow or broad band of control? • How fixed or flexible is the curriculum? How much independence do teachers have to make their own decisions? • How would you characterize the formal organization of your school?
Natural-systems perspective • Developed in large part as a reaction to the scientific managers and perceived inadequacies of the rational-systems model.
Human Relations: The Beginning • Natural-systems perspective • Hawthorne studies • Informal organization
Theory Into Practice Exercise (18) • Name each person in the organization who has informal power but does not have formal authority. Why does each person have such power? Where do they get their power? • Describe the important informal norms that exist in your school. How do the informal and formal leaders get along? Give examples of their cooperation. • What group of teachers is the “in-group”? Does the group have a rival? How do the informal groups get along? How much conflict is there between those with formal authority and those with informal authority? • What is conflict about? Give some examples.
Open System: An Integration Pages 18-20 Video
Open Systems perspective • A reaction to the unrealistic assumption that organized behavior could be isolated from external forces. • Figure 1.3
Theory Into Practice Exercise (20) • Which is more important in your school, the formal or the informal organization? Why? • What area does each control? Where do you fit into the power relations of your school? • What improvements would you try to make to the formal and informal relations in your school if you became the principal? Why? • Who are the people in your school whose voices have been silenced and why? • Finally, To what extent does your principal rely on the formal and informal organization to get things done? What is the balance between the two? Which is more important?
Properties of Open Systems Pages 20-22
Inputs Transformational Process Outputs Feedback Boundaries Environment Homeostasis Entropy Equifinality Nine Central Concepts
Social-Systems Model Pages 22-24
Basic Assumptions:Social Systems… • are open systems • consist of interdependent parts, characteristics, and activities that contribute and receive from the whole • are peopled • are goal oriented • are structural • are normative
Basic Assumptions:Social Systems… • are sanction bearing • are political • have distinctive cultures • are conceptual and relative • All formal organizations are social systems: But all social systems are not formal organizations
Key elements of school social systems Pages 24-33
Key elements Continued • Structure • Bureaucratic roles • Individual • Needs, Goals, Beliefs, Cognition • Figure 1.5 • Culture • Organizational culture • Politics
Key elements Continued • Technical Core • Environment • Outcomes: Table 1.1 • Internal Feedback Loops: Figure 1.6 • External Feedback Loops
School as a learning organization (33-34) • Learning organizations • Student Learning • Create Structures • Effective Response
Case study • See page 34 in book
Figure 1.1 BACK
Figure 1.5 BACK
Table 1.1 BACK
Figure 1.6 BACK
Figure 1.3 BACK