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Warm Up. Explain how the Agricultural Revolution changed life for mankind. CPS Quiz. Mesopotamia. Key Terms. Fertile Crescent Mesopotamia Barter City-state Dynasty Cultural diffusion Polytheism Empire. Hammurabi’s Code. Mesopotamia Preview. Mesopotamia Preview Video

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Warm up
Warm Up

  • Explain how the Agricultural Revolution changed life for mankind.

Key terms
Key Terms

  • Fertile Crescent

  • Mesopotamia

  • Barter

  • City-state

  • Dynasty

  • Cultural diffusion

  • Polytheism

  • Empire

  • Hammurabi’s Code

Mesopotamia preview
Mesopotamia Preview

  • Mesopotamia Preview Video

  • Mesopotamia Song Preview

Geography of fertile crescent
Geography of Fertile Crescent

  • Between the Persian Gulf and Mediterranean Sea

  • Southwest Asia

  • Desert climate

  • Curved shape and fertile land gave it it’s name


  • Part of the Fertile Crescent

  • “land between the rivers”

  • Between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers

  • Annual floods left rich soil for farming


  • Bronze Age began here

  • Early civilization in city of Ur

  • Agricultural Economy with irrigation system

  • Roads of windowless houses and shops for craftsmen

  • System of bartering

Environmental disadvantages
Environmental Disadvantages

  • Land almost a desert because of unpredictable floods and little to no rain

  • No natural barriers for protection

  • Natural resources were limited, specifically building materials

Problems solved
Problems Solved

  • Irrigation ditches to carry water from rivers to fields

  • Built city walls with mud bricks

  • Traded goods with people of mountains and desert for raw materials (stone, wood, and metal)

Sumer civilization
Sumer Civilization

  • Set apart from other early societies due to use of five characteristics of civilization

  • Built cities surrounded by fields, that shared same culture

  • Each city formed its own government, making a city-state

Sumer government
Sumer Government

  • Early gov’t controlled by temple priests

  • Believed success of crops depending on blessings of gods

  • Priests were believed to be able to talk to gods

  • Priests took portion of every farmer’s crops as taxes

Sumer government1
Sumer Government

  • Men chose a tough fighter to lead city in war

  • Power ended at end of war

  • Some military leaders became rulers and would pass power on to their son, forming a dynasty

Cultural diffusion
Cultural Diffusion

  • New cities started in other locations in Fertile Crescent

  • Sumerians shared products and ideas with these new cultures

  • Spread of ideas or products from one culture to another is cultural diffusion

Sumerian religion
Sumerian Religion

  • Polytheism, belief in more than one god

  • Different gods controlled forces of nature

  • Most powerful god was Enlil, god of storm and air

  • Gods were like people

  • Gods immortal

  • Humans were servants

  • Believed dead souls went to underworld

Sumerian society
Sumerian Society

  • Social classes

  • Kings, landholders, and some priests were highest level

  • Wealthy merchants were upper class

  • Most Sumerians worked in fields or workshops and were middle class

  • Slaves were lowest level

  • Slaves were prisoners of war or Sumerians sold as children to pay of debts of their poor parents

Sumerian science and technology
Sumerian Science and Technology

  • Invented wheel, sail, and plow

  • Developed number system in base 60, which is used for modern time and measuring a circle

  • Architecture

  • System of writing called cuneiform

First empires
First Empires

  • City-states fighting one another

  • Sargon, leader of Akkad defeated Sumer

  • Controlled all of Mesopotamia, creating first empire

  • Empire brings peoples, nations, or states under control of one ruler

Babylonian empire
Babylonian Empire

  • 2000 B.C. nomadic warriors known as Amorites invade the region

  • Take control of Sumer

  • Create capital on the Euphrates River, called Babylon

  • Empire at strongest with Hammurabi as leader

Hammurabi s code
Hammurabi’s Code

  • Code of laws used to unify diverse groups in empire

  • Code engraved in stone that were placed all over empire

  • Dealt with all issues

  • Protected women and children

  • Punishment depended on social class and gender

  • Eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth mentality


  • Hammurabi’s Code Interpretation and Illustration

Assyrian empire
Assyrian Empire

  • Assyria 850BC advanced military strength

  • Rise of warrior people

  • Northern Mesopotamia

  • Warlike behavior

  • Rule the Tigris to Egypt

  • Sennacherib destroyed, 82 cities, 820 villages, and burned Babylon

Military organization and conquest
Military Organization and Conquest

  • Used iron

    • Armor

    • Spears

    • swords

  • Siege of cities

    • Pontoons for bridges

    • Undermine walls

    • Marched shoulder to shoulder

Military organization and conquest1
Military Organization and Conquest


Battering rams

Killed captives

Enslaved people

Forced exile

Assyrian culture
Assyrian Culture

  • Nineveh- largest city of its day

  • Sculptures of lion hunts and military campaigns

  • King Ashurbanipal collected 20,000 clay tablets

  • Library had modern features

    • Cataloging

The empire crumbles
The Empire Crumbles

612 BC

Chaldeans and Medes level Nineveh

Rebirth of Babylon

Nebuchadnezzar restored Babylon

Hanging Gardens

Seven tiered Ziggurat

Sun, moon, earth and five planets in our solar system


  • Civilization Chart