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Warm-Up. What governing document was signed by the Pilgrims before landing at Plymouth? Explain three beliefs of the Quakers. Which region of the colonies was impacted the most by the Intolerable Acts? What was Thomas Paine trying to convince the colonists to do in Common Sense ?

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warm up
  • What governing document was signed by the Pilgrims before landing at Plymouth?
  • Explain three beliefs of the Quakers.
  • Which region of the colonies was impacted the most by the Intolerable Acts?
  • What was Thomas Paine trying to convince the colonists to do in Common Sense?
  • Who wrote the Virginia Plan for the Constitution?
articles of confederation
Articles of Confederation
  • Weak central government
  • Changing government law needs an unanimous vote.
  • Can’t regulate trade or currency.
    • Led to a economy weak
  • Governs the growing western territory
    • Land Ordinance of 1785
    • Northwest Ordinance of 1787
articles of confederation1
Articles of Confederation
  • Page 137
  • Eight groups
  • Each group will make a poster that contains eight cartoons. Each cartoon will represent a problem of the A of C. There are eight bullet points in the chart that represent these problems, make a cartoon for each.
  • You have 30 minutes to complete this assignment
land ordinance of 1785
Land Ordinance of 1785
  • Established how land in the west would be surveyed.
  • This was land won during the American Revolution.
northwest ordinance of 1787
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
  • This ordinance broke the land into different territories and determined how they would become new states.
    • Congress appointed a governor and judges.
    • Territory would write a constitution and elect a government after 5,000 people lived there.
    • Once 60,000 people lived in a territory it could apply for statehood. Congress would approve.
shays s rebellion 1787
Shays’s Rebellion - 1787
  • Led by Daniel Shays
  • Farmers in debt
    • Many are war veterans
    • They could lose their farms
  • Led a rebellion of 1,200 to take the arsenal at Springfield but failed.
  • Shows need for stronger government.
  • G. Washington – “What a triumph for our enemies, to find out that we are incapable of governing ourselves.”
warm up1
  • What was the name of the first government in the United States?
  • Describe two weaknesses of the original government of the United States.
  • Explain the Land Ordinance of 1785.
  • Explain the Northwest Ordinance of 1787.
constitutional convention 1787
Constitutional Convention, 1787
  • Took place in Philadelphia
  • James Madison, VA - Father of the Constitution
  • Wrote the Virginia Plan
two different plans
Two Different Plans
  • Virginia Plan = “Large State Plan”
    • Bicameral legislature, based on population
    • Benefits large states.
  • New Jersey Plan = “Small State Plan”
    • Each state gets one vote.
    • Benefits small states.
the compromise
The Compromise
  • “The Great Compromise” – Roger Sherman
    • Combines the two plans (VA and NJ)
    • Two part Congress - House and Senate
  • Some Southern states threaten not to join the Union if slavery was outlawed.
  • 3/5 Compromise: A slave counts as 3/5 of a person
    • Used for taxes and representation
  • Slave trade can be banned 20 years after ratification.
the ratification debate
The Ratification Debate



Against Ratification

George Mason, Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson

A strong central government is dangerous, it weakens and threatens state power

Threatens individual rights

  • For Ratification
  • James Madison, George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay
  • Strong central government, promote economic improvement
  • Checks and Balances keep it from taking away peoples’ rights.
the federalist
The Federalist

James Madison

John Jay

Alexander Hamilton

the federalist papers
The Federalist Papers
  • Hamilton, Madison, Jay
  • Federalist Paper #10
    • Warned against factions.
      • Groups who have views that would take away others rights.
  • Federalist Paper #51
    • Checks and Balances.
    • Separation of Powers
warm up2
  • Who wrote the Federalist Papers?
  • What were the two groups who debated ratifying the Constitution?
  • What are checks and balances?
  • Define the Virginia Plan.
  • Explain the Great and 3/5ths Compromise.
why the bill of rights
Why the Bill of Rights?
  • Many opposed to ratification were afraid of losing individual rights
    • Demanded a Bill of Rights to protect them
  • Final compromise of the convention
bill of rights
Bill of Rights
  • Written by James Madison in 1789
  • 1stTen Amendments to the U.S. Constitution
  • Protected rights of individual citizens



Amendment I

  • Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

Amendment II

  • A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.

Amendment VIII

  • Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
virginia declaration of rights
Virginia Declaration of Rights
  • Written by George Mason in 1776
  • First document to protect individual rights
  • Influenced Jefferson while writing the Declaration of Independence
  • Used as an example while writing the Bill of Rights
virginia statute for religious freedom
Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom
  • Written by Thomas Jefferson in 1779, adopted in 1786
  • Established freedom of religion
    • Government cannot establish an official church
  • Its ideas were used in the Bill of Rights
primary source reading
Primary Source Reading
  • Virginia Declaration of Rights
  • Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom
how does the new government work
How does the new government work?
  • Three Branches
    • Legislative
      • Congress – the House of Representatives and the Senate
    • Executive
      • President
    • Judicial
      • Court System
  • Checks and Balances
    • Each branch has ways to prevent others from passing laws they do not agree with.
examples of checks and balances
Examples of Checks and Balances
  • Presidential Veto.
  • Senate must confirm presidential appointments.
  • Supreme court and declare laws unconstitutional.