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  1.     Music Festival Preparation:     An Adjudicator's Perspective Fusion 2010 Ontario Music Educators Association Conference London, Ontario, November 4-6, 2010 Jonathan G. Bayley, PhDDirector, School of Music University of Windsor 

  2. Prelude... Adjudicated my first festival in 1985 Challenge - What should I say to students & teachers? Not just an informational session Learning opportunity (students & teachers) Reinforce identifiable positives Offer authentic strategies for improvement Music Festival Preparation: Solo & large/small ensemble performances

  3. Benefits from  Participation Publicly show learning (hard work/appropriate instruction) Feedback from Instrumental specialists Students and Teachers - actively engaged Parents, teachers, & Principals attend performances View festivals as school events – student ambassadors What are the educational needs of the students? Learning objectives help set instructional goals

  4. Sectional  Rehearsals By Instrument (clarinets, trumpets) or Instrument Family (brass, woodwinds, or percussion) Chamber music in a large ensemble setting

  5. Presenting Yourself in Public

  6. “Enter the stage with a rehearsed standard to ensure a positive first impression. Bands that are confident, neat in appearance, sit down quietly, allow sufficient space for individual players, adjust music stands to proper height, and sit erectly, with good posture so that each player can see the director, impress adjudicators” (Powell, 1992, p. 69).

  7. Presenting  Yourself in Public It is not enough to just prepare the festival music Discuss stage deportment, proper conduct, attire & seating Performance seating arrangement – similar to classroom Percussion (location & spacing) Absent students (no physical gaps)  Students maintaining their composure even after the last note has sounded

  8. Post-Performance Involvement Teachers are present when adjudicator speaks and works with students Students listen to other ensembles perform Students – cognitively engaged in an analytical and process (critical listeners) An observation/aural analysis form will help students focus

  9. General Performance CharacteristicsTone Students play with focused/centered sound Model for students (vocal modeling) Young Performers - limited dynamic range Teach about tone production early Sustaining the sound - keeping pitch alive! Getting the notes 'off the page'

  10. General Performance CharacteristicsArticulation  Perform with a relaxed tongue Avoid slapping the tongue Practice rhythmic exercises without an instrument Tonguing exercises – daily warm-ups

  11. General Performance CharacteristicsTuning "Before you can tune to others you must be able to tune to yourself " (H. E. Nutt, 1975).

  12. General Performance CharacteristicsTuning The ability to play with accurate intonation – learned skill (form a correct embouchure/play a steady pitch) Engage students in problem solving – don’t just tell them Tune to more than one note The Tuner – play the tuning note then check the meter Intonation at cadences (5th of the chord) Breathe properly/correct embouchure/hold instruments

  13. General Performance CharacteristicsVisualization/Projection/Tempo Ask students to “send their sound” to a particular point “Play to the back of the hall” Keeping time (a steady tempo) – not Stompin’ Tom! Interpreting a rallentando- make more of the rallentandos

  14. Standing out from the  Crowd: Solo and Small Ensemble Performance Preparation Students develop their ensemble playing – improve intonation, tone and musicality Students realize individual contributions are important, valued, and integral

  15. Teaching Strategies for  Small Ensembles All students should be given opportunity and encouragement to participate Student participation should be recognized (school announcements, newsletter, website)  A positive quote from an adjudicator’s notes or taped comments acknowledges their efforts Teachers prepare rhythm sheets

  16. Instrument Specifics Flute Clarinet Saxophone Brass Percussion Bass guitar

  17. Flute Struggle with the upper notes (E3, F#3, and G#3) Subtly adjust the embouchure – ‘ooh’ (as in pooh)

  18. Clarinet Posture – keep the head up (30 degree angle) Bring the instrument to them rather than moving to the instrument Tone production – ‘Play out’ with a full, warm sound “Blow against my hands” or “ warm up my hands”

  19. Saxophone Embouchure formation for saxophone and clarinet – not identical or interchangeable (flat, firm chin or circular) “In the center of the embouchure circle” (Teal, 1963, p. 43) Head straight and not tilted to the left side

  20. Brass Hand position (trumpet/French horn/trombone) Angle of the bells for trumpets and trombones

  21. Percussion Three playing areas for the bass and snare drums Off -center playing spot is used for general playing Snare drum – height adjustments (waist high) Encourage students to use two sticks/mallets

  22. Bass Guitar “Though I have seen electric bases used with positive results, they often are a detriment. Good instruction and a mature attitude help. In order to have successful results, I suggest the band director learn as much as they can about the instrument and its technique. Players should also be limited to playing String Bass or Convertible Bass parts…[so not to put the] melody or harmony parts an octave lower than they were intended to be” (Schrum, 2000, p. 13).

  23. Debriefing the Experience Both teacher & student can benefit from debriefing Identifiable successes and areas for improvement “Festivals represent an important part of the year’s schedule, but should not control the curriculum” (Powell, 1992, p. 69). The combination of proper planning, varied teaching strategies, and the adherence to solid educational objectives will ensure a successful musical (educational) experience

  24. References Bayley, J.G. (2009b). Standing out from the crowd: Solo and small ensemble festival preparation. Canadian Music Educators Journal, 51(1), 31-34. Bayley, J.G. (2009a). Music Festival Preparation: An Adjudicator’s perspective. Canadian Music Educators Journal, 50(4), 31-35. Bayley, J. G. (2006). Fundamentals of teaching flute vibrato. Canadian Winds/Vents canadiens: Journal of the Canadian Band Association, 5(1), 30-32. Bayley, J. G. (2005). Fundamentals of successful flute playing. Canadian Winds/Vents canadiens: Journal of the Canadian Band Association, 3(2), 69-73. Bayley, J. G. (2002). The pedagogy of correct breathing. Canadian Music Educator, 43(3), 35-  37. Beck, W. H. (1979). Preparing a band for festival competition. The Instrumentalist 34, 17-19. Breithaupt, R. B. (1991). The complete percussionist: A guide for the music educator. Oskaloosa, Iowa: Barnhouse. Brown, J. S. (2002). Music festival preparation: Musical rewards should triumph. Canadian  Winds/Vents canadiens, 1(1), 29-30. Colwell, R. J., & Goolsby, T. (1992). The teaching of instrumental music (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Krell, J. (1973). Kincaidiana: A flute player’s notebook. Culver City, CA: Trio Associates. Powell, L. E. (1992). Preparing for band festivals. The Instrumentalist, 46, 68-69. Prenshaw, R. (1989). A festival preparation checklist. The Instrumentalist, 44, 38, 40, 43. Quantz, J. J. (1966). On playing the flute. (E. R. Reilly, Trans.). New York: Schirmer Books. [Original work published in 1752] Schrum, L. (2000). Your job is to make my job difficult: Quotes from the festival season.   Canadian Band Journal, 25(1), 29, 34. Sperling, R., Howard, B., Stanley, R., & DuBois, N. (2004). Metacognition and self- regulated learning constructs. Educational Research and Evaluation, 10(2), 117-139. Stein, K. (1958). The art of clarinet playing. Princeton, NJ: Summy-Birchard Music. Stokes, S. W. & Condon, R. A. (1981). Illustrated method for flute (4th ed.).  Culver City, CA:   Trio Associates. Szot, J. (2007). Student perceptions of music festivals. Canadian Music Educator/Musicien  Educateur au Canada, 48(3), 55. Teal, L. (1963). The art of saxophone playing. Secaucus, NJ: Summy-Birchard Music. Tupman, D. F. (2008). Music festivals – Reflections, vision & philosophy. Canadian  Winds/Vents canadiens: Journal of the Canadian Band Association, 6(2), 56-57.

  25.     Music Festival Preparation:     An Adjudicator's Perspective Fusion 2010 Ontario Music Educators Association Conference London, Ontario, November 4-6, 2010 Jonathan G. Bayley, PhDDirector, School of Music University of Windsor