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Humanistic Perspective. Carl Rogers & Abraham Maslow. The Humanistic Perspective. Humanistic Perspective. A perspective that focuses the individual’s self awareness and freedom to choose.

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humanistic perspective

Humanistic Perspective

Carl Rogers


Abraham Maslow

humanistic perspective1
Humanistic Perspective
  • A perspective that focuses the individual’s self awareness and freedom to choose.
  • Believe people are free to choose what to do with their lives are responsible for the choices they make.
  • Interested in how people try to reach self-fulfillment.
  • Sees people as innately good.
  • Studies fulfilled and healthy individuals rather than troubled people
humanistic measures
Humanistic Measures
  • Humanistic measures of personality center on evaluating a person’s self concept--all of our thought and feelings about ourselves
  • Answer the question “Who Am I?”
abraham maslow 1908 1970
Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)
  • Humanistic psychologist who developed the hierarchy of needs
  • Believed that self-actualization (reaching your full potential) is the ultimate psychological need
hierarchy of needs
Hierarchy of Needs
  • Maslow’s pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs, proceeding through safety needs and then to psychological needs
  • Higher-level needs won’t become active until lower-level needs have been satisfied.
self actualization
  • According to Maslow, the need to live up to one’s fullest and unique potential
  • Characteristics include:
    • Self aware and self accepting
    • Open, spontaneous, loving, and caring
    • Not paralyzed by other’s opinions
    • Focused on a particular task
carl rogers 1902 1987
Carl Rogers (1902-1987)
  • Humanistic psychologist who stressed the importance of acceptance, genuineness, and empathy in fostering human growth
  • Believed a person must know their genuine feelings and act upon them.
carl rogers
Carl Rogers
  • Self-concept—The impression you have of yourself as an individual.
    • This is formed by recognizing what you value and through you relationships with others.
  • Congruence – Key to happiness. When your view of yourself what you experience from others is consistent or the same.
    • See yourself as outgoing and you have good relationships with others then you are congruent and happy.
    • Incongruence is when these don’t match. It will cause you to be anxious and upset.
our need for self esteem
Our Need for Self-Esteem
  • Rogers said we all need to believe in our self and have self respect.
  • This self respect depends largely on how others treat us.
  • Two things that influence our self-esteem
    • Conditional Positive Regard
    • Unconditional Positive Regard
conditional positive regard
Conditional Positive Regard
  • Person is valued and loved only when the he/she behaves in a way that is acceptable to others.
  • Rogers felt we cannot live up to the wishes of others and remain true to ourselves. We’ll only end up disappointed and incongruent.
unconditional positive regard
Unconditional Positive Regard
  • An attitude of total acceptance toward another person despite their faults and failings
  • This leads to high self esteem and confidence in oneself.
  • However, Rogers did not believe in permissive parenting. He said parents can disapprove of a behavior without completely rejecting the child.
  • Freely expressing one’s feelings and not being afraid to disclose details about oneself
  • Sharing thoughts and understanding
  • Listening and reflecting the other person’s feelings
unconditional positive regard will help to create
Unconditional Positive Regard will help to create…
  • Congruence – A person’s sense of self is consistent with their emotions & experiences.
comparing rogers to freud
Comparing Rogers to Freud
  • Rogers – Viewed people as positive, forward-moving, constructive, realistic and trustworthy.
    • People are innately good
    • Humans will choose to act in ways that serve to improve society and perpetuate the human race.
  • Freud – Pessimistically viewed humans as hostile, antisocial, destructive & evil
    • We need society restraints/laws to keep humans in line and prevent the destruction of the human race.
evaluating humanistic perspective
Evaluating Humanistic Perspective
  • Humanistic Approach focuses on the consciousness and stresses human freedom.
  • Critics argue that because it focuses on consciousness that it can never be a science because what a person thinks and feels cannot be scientifically studied.
  • Critics also point out that it does not explain the development of traits and personality types.