Warm Up • What is nationalism? • How does nationalism effect unification? • What do you think are some pros and cons of nationalism?
Unit 8: Unification & Politics of the 19th Century(1815-1914)
Germany Before Unification • 39 States: The German Confederation • Two dominant states • Austria & Prussia • Prussia’s advantages • Mainly German population • Powerful Army • Industrialization
Early Action towards Unification • Zollverein (1834): German customs union • Purpose was to stimulate trade, increase revenues of member states • Left out Austria – why? • Wanted to weaken Austria’s power over German states • Relationship between Austria and other states deteriorate
Prussia • Frankfurt Assembly (1848) • Movement for German unification (excluding Austria) fails • Olmutz (1850) • Major European powers afraid of German unification • Prussia forced to give up unification plan and accept the renewed German Confederation, still dominated by Austria • Prussians refer to it as “Humiliation of Olmutz” • Move towards more liberal government under King William I (ruled 1861-1888)
Warm Up • What is “realpolitik”? • Come up with at least two pros and two cons for “realpolitik”.
William I & Bismarck • William I: Conservative • Supported by Junkers (nobles) • Allowed liberals and moderates in government • Wanted to strengthen army and unify Germany • Liberals refused to approve army build-up • Calls upon Otto Von Bismarck for assistance in 1862 stalemate over budget • “Realpolitik” –politics through sheer force and power • To gain practical results, make no moral or ideological considerations – just do it • Ends justify the means
Bismarck’s Realpolitik • Bismarck urges king to ignore the liberals in government • Enforce taxes, build army • Bismarck becomes leader of unification movement – named Prime Minister by William • Bismarck a master politician • Would wisely assess a political scene, used cleverness and force to accomplish goals “The great questions of the day will not be decided by speeches and resolutions, that was the blunder of 1848 and 1849 – but by blood and iron.”
Bismarck’s Main Goal: UNITE GERMAN STATES Bismarck unites Germany in three steps…
STEP ONE • Create alliance with Austria • 1864 – Went to war with Denmark over bordering regions of Schleswig and Holstein • Prussia & Austria win in six weeks • Prussia got Schleswig • Austria got Holstein • Bismarck knew this arrangement would cause tension – Just what he wanted… WHY?
STEP TWO • Create conflict with Austria • Border conflicts between Prussia and Austria over Schleswig & Holstein • With war looming, Bismarck isolates Austria from allies • Convinces France to stay neutral • Promised Italy control of Venetia (still owned by Austria)
STEP TWO • Lures Austria into war • Austro-Prussian War • “Seven Weeks War” • Prussia defeats Austria at Battle of Sadowa (July 1866) • Results of war: • Austria lost Venetia to Italy (who helped Prussia) • Prussia gained control of northern German states
STEP THREE • Needed the Catholics in the South to feel a sense of German nationalism • France was isolated by Bismarck’s diplomacy • “Ems Dispatch” • Bismarck altered a telegram sent from Prussia to France – outrages both nations • France declares war (1870)
STEP THREE • Franco-Prussian War (1870) • France launches attack on southern German states • Outside attack stirred nationalism in south, desire for protection • Prussia sweeps down and defeats French at Battle of Sedan, Siege of Paris • French surrender
Treaty of Frankfurt (1871) • France owes compensation, forfeits Alsace and part of Lorraine • Second Reich proclaimed • (First Reich refers to Holy Roman Empire) • William I crowned emperor of German Empire
The Second Reich • King William I (AKA Kaiser Wilhelm I) from House of Hohenzollern • Hohenzollern monarch had ruled in Prussia and parts of Germany for centuries • Kaiser headed federal union, 26 states, 41 million in population • Bicameral legislature: • Bundersat (upper house) • Reichstag (lower house) • Legislature does not have power over Chancellor…
Chancellor Otto Von Bismarck • Bismarck believes effective states have one faith, one law, one ruler • Distrusted Catholic Church, Socialist party • Launched: “Kulturkampf” – persecution against Catholics • Tried to suppress socialists, Socialist Democratic Party • Despite Bismarck’s anti-socialists laws, party gains popularity • Eventually compromised on both issues
New Kaisers • William I dies in 1888 • His son, Frederick III is crowned new Kaiser • More open to socialist and liberal movements • Plans to apply more liberal ideas in Germany… • Dies of cancer after 3 months of ruling • His son, William II (AKA Wilhelm II) crowned new Kaiser rules from 1888-1918 • Will be last of the Hohenzollern rulers by 1918
True or False: Many countries began to change from capitalist government/economies to socialist government/economies during the 1800s. FALSE: Socialism was just a new idea that began and gained some support throughout the Industrial Age. No governments will completely change to “socialism” until Russia in the 1920s.
Test Corrections Giving everyone credit for #1 (test is now out of 58, not 60) The short answer needs to be completely rewritten for a 1/3 of the credit. Will give you back 33% of your lost points IF and ONLY IF corrections are done right...
1. All of the following IMPROVED as an early result of the Industrial Revolution EXCEPT A. Worker’s rights C. Factory working conditions B. Transportation D. The quality of clothing Bad Test Correction: “The answer is D because the quality of clothing got better when the Industrial Revolution started” OR “The quality of clothing improved as an early result of the Industrial Revolution. Not worker’s rights, transportation, or factory working conditions.” Good Test Correction: “The quality of clothing improved very much during the early part of the Industrial Revolution because the first machines in factories, such as the power loom, were designed to produce cloth better and faster. Worker’s rights, better transportation, and better conditions in factories wouldn’t come until later on in the Industrial Revolution.
Kaiser Wilhelm II • New emperor lacked finesse, intelligence of father and grandfather • Resented Bismarck’s power, pressured him into retiring • Germany still progressed flourished • Highly competitive industry against Britain • Dominated world market in chemicals, electrical industries • High literacy, vocational training, government supported industry
Warm Up • Why did the rest of Europe try to stop Germany from uniting? • What made it easier for the German confederation to unite? • Why was Germany so successful once they did unite?
Decline of Austria • Nationalism rising throughout empire • Problem for Austrians? • NOT Austrian nationalism: Hungarian, Polish, Romanian, German, Czech, Italian, Slovakian, etc. • Hungarians demanding equality with Vienna • Revolution for independence in 1848 fails • 1864 – Defeat in Austro-Prussian War • Afterwards, King Franz Joseph I (Habsburg) offers Hungary equal power • “Ausgleich” constitution accepted in 1867 • Creates a Duel Monarchy: • Franz Joseph now king of Hungary and emperor of Austria
Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary • Both Austria and Hungary had own constitution, language, flag, economies, etc • Ethnic crises in both parts of the empire • 8 different nationalities, languages, cultures, etc… • Hungarians try to force “Magyarization” • Forcing diverse citizens to practice only one language and culture: Hungarian • Complete disunity and disorganization • Chaotic, weak and inefficient empire would last until 1914
Warm Up • So far, how had nationalism affected both Germany and Austria? • How do you think it will affect Italy?
Italy Before Unification • Italy reorganized at Congress of Vienna in 1815 • Austria ruled Lombardy & Venetia • Spanish ruled Kingdom of Two Sicilies • Piedmont-Sardinia was the most powerful of the Italian States, ruled by King Charles Albert – an Italian monarch
Early Action • Revolutions of 1830 • Giuseppe Mazzini attempts to organize a movement • Takes power from fleeing Pope Pius – forms a Roman Republic • France invades, restores Pope’s power • Revolutions of 1848 • Many states granted temporary liberal constitutions • Both Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi involved in this movement
Piedmont-Sardinia Takes Control • King Victor Emmanuel II • Monarch of Sardinia • Prime Minister Camillo Cavour aristocrat • Liberal, uses diplomacy against Austria • Gains support of Britain & France • Uses “Realpolitik” • Together will lead unification • Goal at first: strengthen Sardinia’s power, not to necessarily unify Italy • Focused on Northern Italy What empire was in their way in Northern Italy?
Austria Out Of Italy! • Made secret arrangement with Napoleon III to provoke a war with Austria • 1858 – Austria is lured into attacking Sardinia, France comes to defense and Austrians are driven out • France will get Nice and Savoy • Italians get part of Northern Italy but not Venetia • They will get Venetia later by helping the Germans fight Austria in 1866 Things worked out well so Cavour sets his sights on southern Italy. …Unification?
Meanwhile in the South… • Garibaldi & his Red Shirts captured Sicily in 1860, inspiring Sicilians to join the cause for unification • Cavour secretly supports Garibaldi • Why is he helping? • Garibaldi marches north toward Rome and the Vatican • Cavour afraid of implications, calls for vote in conquered territories • Voted to unite southern areas with Sardinia • Garibaldi stepped aside
Italy Unified! …almost. What’s the problem?
Italian Unification • Ruled by Victor Emmanuel II • 1866 – added Venetia as a result of the Seven weeks War (also called the Austro-Prussian War) • 1870 – added Papal States • Pope still governed Vatican City Challenges: • Regional conflicts • Industrialized north vs. agricultural south • Peasant revolts, economic problems • Political conflict leads to violence • Mass emigration to United States Italy enters 20th century a poor and struggling nation
Quiz Tomorrow • First 3 sections: • Germany • Austria • Italy • Working on DBQ tomorrow. Bring those materials. • DBQ Essay due Sunday Night at 11:59 PM
Test Corrections • Giving everyone credit for #1 (test is now out of 58, not 60) • The short answer needs to be completely rewritten for a 1/3 of the credit. • Will give you back 33% of your lost points IF and ONLY IF corrections are done right...
Bad Test Correction: “The answer is D because the quality of clothing got better when the Industrial Revolution started” OR “The quality of clothing improved as an early result of the Industrial Revolution. Not worker’s rights, transportation, or factory working conditions.” Good Test Correction: “The quality of clothing improved very much during the early part of the Industrial Revolution because the first machines in factories, such as the power loom, were designed to produce cloth better and faster. Worker’s rights, better transportation, and better conditions in factories wouldn’t come until later on in the Industrial Revolution. 1. All of the following IMPROVED as an early result of the Industrial Revolution EXCEPT A. Worker’s rights C. Factory working conditions B. Transportation D. The quality of clothing
True or False: • Many countries began to change from capitalist government/economies to socialist government/economies during the 1800s. • FALSE: Socialism was just a new idea that began and gained some support throughout the Industrial Age. No governments will completely change to “socialism” until Russia in the 1920s.
Warm Up: • Compare and contrast democracy and dictatorship? • What are the bonuses of both? • What are the flaws in each? • How do you think each effect the idea of Nationalism?
Napoleon III (1808-1873) • No experience in politics • Nephew of Napoleon I • 1848 elected to four year term; share power with National Assembly • Somewhat influenced to Marx’s ideas • Still suppressed workers & peasants who opposed him • Strengthened his power • 1851 illegally dismissed Assembly; people voted to make him president for ten years • 1852 – declares himself emperor Napoleon III
The Second Empire of France(1852-1870) Successes: • Improved industrialization • Helped build the Suez Canal • Improved railways • Allowed for some local government • Legalized labor unions • Right to strike guaranteed • Haussmannization – urban renewal in Paris
The Second Empire of France(1852-1870) Failures: • Rigged elections • Secret police • Failed puppet regime in Mexico through Maximilian I • 1870 – Defeated In Franco-Prussian War • Ends Napoleon III’s rule and Second Empire
Third Republic of France • Bismarck imposes harsh peace terms • The French bankrupt & in disarray – humiliated • Assembly of wealthy royalists formed • Paris Commune (1871) • Coalition of resistance – lower classes wanted better rights & a republic • Commune savagely repressed, • Assembly can’t agree on king, facing pressure from lower classes • Choose a republic as least disagreeable compromise: • The Third Republic of France (1871) • Constitution approved by 1875 • Despite weak Republic, France stable and prosperous by 1914
Warm Up • When it comes to nationalism, unification, government, and reform… • What advantages does Britain have over all the other European nations?
Reform in Great Britain Legislation can solve problems
19th Century England: Undemocratic? • What was going on in England in the 1800s? • Industrialization – many problems for poor • Problems need to be fixed by government • What type of government was ruling in England? • Parliament – representative democracy • “Power to the people” • Politically, who ruled in Parliament? • The Conservatives – “The Tory Party” (since 1770s) • Led by Duke of Wellington • Severely repressed poor with laws and harsh tactics • Unfair representation: • Manchester & Birmingham had no representation in government
Reform in England • Problems growing, not being fixed: • Tories forced out by 1830 • Whig Party takes over – more liberal • Led by Lord Charles Grey • Help lower classes • “Chartism” – movement to reform: • Ends capital punishment, modern police force • Labor union restrictions removed, right to strike, worker insurance • Reforms in public housing, education • Voting reforms: • Universal manhood suffrage, secret ballot, end to property requirements, pay for members of Parliament • Working class men 1867, rural workers 1884, women 1919