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Chapter 5. Motivation. Determinants of Job Performance. Willingness to perform. Job Performance. Capacity to perform. Opportunity to perform. Determinants of Job Performance.

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determinants of job performance
Determinants of Job Performance

Willingnessto perform



Capacity to perform

Opportunity to perform

determinants of job performance1
Determinants of Job Performance

It is Risky to Assume that a Performance Problem is Always a Motivation Problem!

motivation components
Motivation Components
  • Direction: What you Choose to Do, When Given Alternatives.
  • Intensity: Strength of Response or Effort Exerted.
  • Persistence: How Long You Will Continue to Exert Effort.

All Employees are “Motivated” – But, the Direction, Intensity, and Persistence of that Motivation may Not Match the Behavior Desired!

motivation starting point the individual
Motivation Starting Point:The Individual

How does Diversity impact a manager’s attempts to Motivate employees?

motivation starting point the individual1
Motivation Starting Point:The Individual

What are “needs” and how do they impact Motivation?

maslow s need hierarchy
Maslow’s Need Hierarchy

Maslow defined human needs as:

  • Physiological
  • Safety & Security
  • Belongingness, Social, & Love
  • Esteem
  • Self-Actualization
maslow s need hierarchy related to the job
Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Related to the Job

How can each of these Need Levels be satisfied by Work ?

  • Physiological
  • Safety and Security
  • Belongingness, Social, and Love
  • Esteem
  • Self-Actualization
maslow s theory key points
Maslow’s Theory: Key Points

What are the keys points made in Maslow’s Theory of Motivation?

alderfer s erg theory
Alderfer’s ERG Theory

Alderfer’s hierarchy involves three sets of needs:

  • Existence
  • Relatedness
  • Growth
allderfer s erg theory key point
Allderfer’s ERG Theory: Key Point

Compare Maslow’s concept of the satisfaction-progressionprocess, to Alderfer’s concept of a frustration-regression process.

● Example of frustration-regression?

alderfer s erg theory management application
Alderfer’s ERG Theory: Management Application

If a subordinate’s higher-order needs (e.g., growth) are blocked, perhaps because of company policy or lack of resources, it is in the manager’s best interest to attempt to redirect the subordinate’s efforts toward relatedness or existence needs.

herzberg s two factor theory
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory

●What are the “Two Factors?”

●Examples of each in the Workplace?

herzberg s two factor theory1
Extrinsic Conditions: Dissatisfiersor “Hygienes”


Job Security

Working Conditions


Company Procedures

Quality of Supervision

Quality of Interpersonal Relations at work

IntrinsicConditions: Satisfiersor “Motivators”





The Work itself

The Possibility of Growth

Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
traditional versus herzberg view of job satisfaction
Traditional versus HerzbergView of Job Satisfaction

I. Traditional Job Satisfaction Theory

High Job Dissatisfaction

High Job Satisfaction

II. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory

No Job


High Job


Based on Motivators

• Feeling of achievement • Meaningful work

•Opportunities for growth •Increased responsibility

•Opportunities for advancement •Recognition

High Job


No Job


Hygiene Factors

• Pay • Status •Job security

•Working conditions •Employee benefits

•Policies and procedures •Interpersonal relations

global ob p 128
Global OB (p. 128)

Motivation & Hygiene Factors

Across Cultures

  • Are Herzberg’s concepts of Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction supported?
herzberg s two factor theory job enrichment
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory:Job Enrichment
  • What is Job Enrichment?
  • How can Job Enrichment increase an individual’s motivation?
organizational encounter p 129
Organizational Encounter (p. 129)

Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCBs)

  • Types/Examples?
  • Why do Employees engage in OCBs?
  • How can we encourage OCBs?
mcclelland s learned needs theory
McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory


(n Ach)


(n Aff)


(n Pow)

mcclelland s theory key point
McClelland’s Theory: Key Point

How does McClelland’s Theorydiffer from the concepts of Maslow and Alderfer?

comparison of the content theories
Comparison of the Content Theories


(need hierarchy)




social, and love

Safety and



  • Herzberg
  • (two-factor theory)
  • The work itself
  • Responsibility
  • Advancement
  • Growth
  • Achievement
  • Recognition
  • Quality of inter-
  • personal relations
  • at work
  • Job security
  • Working conditions
  • Salary






Need for


Need for


Need for










process theories of motivation
Founders of the Theories

Vroom –Expectancy theory of choices

Adams – Equity theory based on comparisons that individuals make

Locke – Goal-Setting theory (conscious goals and intentions are the determinants of behavior)

Process Theories of Motivation
vroom s expectancy theory
Vroom’s Expectancy Theory
  • Motivation is a process governing choices among alternate forms of voluntary activity.
  • Most behaviors are considered to be under the voluntary control of the person and consequently are motivated.
vroom s expectancy theory1
Vroom’s Expectancy Theory

Motivation=Expectancy x Instrumentality x Valence

M = E x I x V

A multiplicative relationship!

expectancy first level outcomes
Expectancy: First-Level Outcomes

First-level outcomes result from behavior and are associated withdoing the job.

  • First-level outcomes include :
    • Productivity
    • Quality of Production
    • Absenteeism
    • Turnover
expectancy second level outcomes
Expectancy: Second-Level Outcomes

Events (rewards and punishments) that the

first-level outcomes are likely to produce,

such as:

  • Merit Pay Increases
  • Promotions
  • Group Acceptance or Rejection
  • Termination
expectancy theory key terms
Expectancy Theory: Key Terms
  • Instrumentality
    • The perception by an individual thatfirst-level outcomes (performance) are associated with second-level outcomes (rewards).
  • Valence
    • The individual’s Preferences for outcomes
    • Applies to both 1st and 2nd Level outcomes
expectancy theory key terms1
Expectancy Theory: Key Terms
  • Expectancy
    • The individual’s belief regarding the likelihood(or subjective probability) that a particular behavior will be followed by a particular outcome(a probability statement).
expectancy theory key terms2
Expectancy Theory: Key Terms

2 Types of Expectancies

  • Effort-Performance Expectancy (E→P)
  • Performance-Outcome Expectancy (P→O)

Expectancy Theory

Second-level outcome

First-level outcome


Perceived Probability of successful Performance, given effort

Second-level outcome



First-level outcome

Second-level outcome

Second-level outcome


First-level outcome

Second-level outcome

Perceived Probability of receiving an Outcome (Reward/Punishment), given performance

Second-level outcome

vroom s expectancy theory2
Vroom’s Expectancy Theory

Motivation=Expectancy x Instrumentality x Valence

M = E x I x V

A multiplicative relationship!

equity theory
Equity Theory

What does Equity Theory tell us about:

  • Comparison
  • Rewards
  • Motivation
equity theory key terms
Equity Theory: Key Terms
  • Person–the Individual perceiving equity or inequity.
  • Comparison Other– any group or person used by “Person” as a Referent regarding the ratio of inputs and outcomes.
  • Inputs– the individual characteristics brought by “Person” to the job.
  • Outcomes– what “Person” received from the job.
the equity theory of motivation
The Equity Theory of Motivation

Compares Person’s Input/Outcome Ratio to reference person’s (RP) inputs (I) and outcomes (O)

A Person (P) with certain Inputs (I) and receiving certain Outcomes (O)

and Perceives












IP: Inputs of the person

OP: Outcomes of the person

IRP: Inputs of reference person

ORP: Outcomes of reference person

change procedures to restore equity
Change Procedures to Restore Equity
  • Change Inputs
  • Change Outcomes
  • Change Attitudes
  • Change the Reference Person
  • Change the Inputs or Outcomes of the Reference Person
  • Leave the field (Quit!)
organizational justice
Organizational Justice

The degree to which individuals feel fairly treated at the workplace

  • What isDistributiveJustice?
  • What isProceduralJustice?
procedural justice positive impact
Procedural Justice: Positive Impact

What Positive Impacts can Procedural Justice produce in the workplace?

organizational justice1
Organizational Justice

The degree to which individuals feel fairly treated at the workplace

  • What isInterpersonalJustice?
  • What isInformationalJustice?
examples of goal setting at work
Examples of Goal Setting at Work
  • Landing 5 new customers or increasing sales to existing customers by 10% over the next 12 months.
  • Decreasing waste in the manufacturing process by 20% over the next 3 years.
goal setting at work
Goal Setting at Work

Specific, Challenging Goals (if Accepted) result in Higher Performance.

goal setting applied to organizations
Goal Setting Applied to Organizations

Goal Characteristics:

• Clear




Preferred by

Individual or Team


Desired by






you be the judge p 139
You Be the Judge (p. 139)
  • Is “Participative Management” an Ethical Imperative?
  • Why or Why Not?
exchange theory
Exchange Theory

What is “exchanged” for what in this theory?

psychological contract
Psychological Contract
  • What is a “Psychological Contract” at work?
  • What factors can the Exchanges involve?
  • Why must the Manager be attuned to the needs and expectations of employees?
conclusions for managers
Conclusions for Managers

1. Managers can influence the motivation of employees!

2. To motivate employees, managers must be aware of differences in employees’ needs, abilities, &goals.

Managers must also recognize differences in preferences (valences) for rewards.

conclusions for managers1
Conclusions for Managers

3. Monitoring the needs, abilities, goals, and preferences of employees is every manager’s responsibility --- not just human resource managers!

4. Managers should work to provide employees with jobs offering task challenge, diversity, and opportunities for need satisfaction.

case 5 1 comparing co workers
Case 5.1 – Comparing Co-Workers

1. What is your opinion of “Forced Ranking” performance appraisals?

●Do they motivate employees?

●Explain your viewpoint.

case 5 1 comparing co workers1
Case 5.1 – Comparing Co-Workers

2. How does Equity Theory explain negative reactions to Forced Rankings?

●Explain your reasoning.

case 5 1 comparing co workers2
Case 5.1 – Comparing Co-Workers

3. Based on this chapter, how would you Motivate employees -- without using forced rankings?