Learning Target Understand early characteristics of Southern Colonization and how it impacted future Colonial settlements in North America.
Image Investors Fund Jamestown • Rulers of England did not finance the risky venture of colonizing the Americas (tremendous expense). • In 1606, King James I granted a charter (permit) to the joint-stock companies of Virginia Companies of London & Plymouth (later disbanded). • The Virginia Company lured financial supporters with the chance of getting rich from gold & silver with their investment. • The Kings charter guaranteed the Monarchy 1/5 of all the gold & silver found by the colonists. • In spring of 1607, the first wave of colonists (150) reached the coast of Virginia & established Jamestown (after the King). Continued . . . NEXT
Formative Assessment The settlement founded in early 1600s that was the most important for the future United states was • Santa Fe • Quebec C. Jamestown D. Massachusetts Bay E. Saint Augustine
Formative Assessment The financial means for England’s first permanent colonization in America were provided by • a joint-stock company • a royal proprietor C. Queen Elizabeth II D. the law of primogeniture E. and expanding wool trade
Chesapeake Bay Geographic/environmental problems??
Captain John Smith:The Right Man for the Job? There was no talk…but dig gold, wash gold, refine gold, load gold…
Early Years • Horrible start! • Settlers were consumed with discovering gold because their investors were demanding a quick return on their investment (establishing permanent settlement not a high priority). • Disease (from infected river water) & hunger followed • Colonists were unaccustomed to manual labor & refused to do the basics for survival (plant crops & gather food). • By winter 1607, 38/150 colonists remained alive. NEXT
John Smith the self-proclaimed “leader” was amazed at the settler’s lack of survival skills & motivation (only motivated to find gold) demanded the colonists to farm or they don’t eat. • John Smith began a relationship with the “Powhatan” tribe & attempted to use this relationship to gain assistance (Smith is later badly hurt by a freak accident & sent back to England & replaced by Lord De La Warr who puts Jamestown under Military rule)
Second fleet of colonists (600) arrive in 1609, & were shocked to the horrors they witnessed ( disorganization & conflict with the Powhatan’s) • The Powhatan tribe saw the mass invasion of settlers & reacted with violence (harassed hunters & killed livestock) • By 1609, the Colonists began to starve & famine spread throughout Jamestown. • 60/750 initial Colonists at Jamestown survived. Continued . . . NEXT
Formative Assessment The early years at Jamestown were mainly characterized by • starvation, disease, and frequent Indian raids. • Economic prosperity. C. constant fear of Spanish invasion. D. Major technological advancement E. peace with the Native Americans
John Rolfe What finally made the colony prosperous??
Tobacco Plant Virginia’s gold and silver. -- John Rolfe, 1612
Form of Relief # 1 (1) Creation of new Tobacco • By 1612, a Jamestown Colonist (John Rolfe) crossed-breaded Native American weeds & South American seeds. • This Tobacco caused Europeans to freak out & was the economic savior of the Southern Colonies
Early Colonial Tobacco 1618 — Virginia produces 20,000 pounds of tobacco. 1622 — Despite losing nearly one-third of its colonists in an Indian attack, Virginia produces 60,000 pounds of tobacco. 1627 — Virginia produces 500,000 pounds of tobacco. 1629 — Virginia produces 1,500,000 pounds of tobacco.
Form of Relief #2 Slavery Tobacco = Field Labor Colonists=Unskilled Labor • In effort to lure settlers to Jamestown, the Virginia Company introduced Headright System = whoever paid for the passage of a laborer received the right to acquire 50 acres of land. • Indentured Servants = in exchange for passage to North America, food & shelter, servants agreed to servitude for 7 yrs.
17c Populationin the Chesapeake WHY this large increase in black popul.??
Colonial Slavery • As the number of slaves increased, white colonists reacted to put down perceived racial threat. • Slavery transformed from economic to economic and racial institution. • Early 1600s differences between slave and servant were unclear. • By the mid-1680s, black slaves outnumbered white indentured servants.
Colonial Slavery • Beginning in 1662 “Slave Codes” • Made blacks [and their children] property, or chattel for life of white masters. • In some colonies, it was a crime to teach a slave to read or write. • Eventual wealth of Southern Colonies allowed them to afford African Slaves who were very expensive =for life, & offspring.
Group Formative Assessment Explain how tobacco became the South’s “gold & silver” and how it led to the evolution of slavery in North America.