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Latin American Revolutions

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  1. Latin American Revolutions

  2. Comparing Spanish/British colonies • Importance of American Colonies: • Spain: major part of empire • Britain: small outpost of empire • Profits from American Colonies: • Spain: huge profits • Britain: struggled to tax colonies to pay for

  3. Causes • Enlightenment • Americanism • Other Revolutions • Economic Issues • Social Issues

  4. enlightenment • Challenge to the absolute monarchy • Natural laws • Popular Sovereignty

  5. Spanish Enlightenment • Program of modernization • Administration • Imperial economy • Renewed imperialism

  6. Spanish American Enlightenment • Critical attitude toward: • Authority • Tradition • Monarchy • Less about revolutionary sentiments

  7. Monarchy • Beginning of 18th century, the Hapsburgs were replaced with the Bourbons. • Bourbons moved empire toward bureaucratic/rational system away from the personal ethos of Hapsburgs. • Creoles –loyalty NOT to nation but to king. Philip V – 1st Bourbon King

  8. Church • Spanish Americans begin to question power/authority of Catholic Church. • Enlightenment influence • Political/economic motives Santo Domingo Church, Oaxaco, Mexico

  9. Americanism • Creoles’ sense of pride as Americans • Perhaps greater role than Enlightenment

  10. Revolutions • United States • Spurs confidence in other colonies • Example of a republic that worked

  11. Revolutions • France • Overall too radical, democratic, anarchic for most creoles • Provided political rationale: liberty, equality, republican government, representation, free trade LibertyLeading the People - Eugene Delacroix

  12. Haiti 1791 Begins 1804 Declares independence 1820 Independent Republic Revolutions Jean-Jacques Dessalines Toussaint L’Ouverture

  13. Trade Revolution • Spanish mercantilism restricted creoles’ ability to trade with England and within the empire. • English manufactured goods, textiles – first industrial revolution

  14. Political Disempowerment Economic Disempowerment Social Hierarchy Social Issues

  15. The Spark

  16. French control of Spain 1804 Napoleon = Emperor Goal: European domination May 1808: Fernando VII abdicates; Spain handed over to France. 6 year struggle to regain Spanish independence War in Europe

  17. Spanish Uprisings • Juntas formed – loyal to Fernando VII. • 1810 – Junta becomes Council of Regency ruling in name of Fernando • 1812 Council transformed into cortes – Parliament. • Called for end of most privileges/rights of feudal society • Wrote Spain’s first constitution

  18. American Reaction • Colonists formed own juntas – people ruling instead of king • Political/economic autonomy • British navy prevent French from crossing Atlantic

  19. LATIN AMERICAN REVOLUTIONS • Haiti (1791-1804) • Ecuador (1809-1822) • Bolivia (1809-25) • Argentina (1810-1816) • Chile (1810 -19) • Colombia (1810-19) • Mexico (1810-21) • Paraguay (1811) • Venezuela (1811-22) • Peru (1821) • Brazil (1822)

  20. Leaders of Latin American Revolutions • Jose de San Martin (Argentina, Chile, Peru) • Miguel de Hidalgo (Mexico) • Simon Bolivar (Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Panama, and Bolivia) • Toussaint L’Ouverture (Haiti) • Jose Maria Morelos (Mexico) • Bernando O’Higgins (Chile)

  21. Return of Fernando Vii • 1814 • Attempted to return to absolutist, colonial regime of 18th century • Triggers second wave of revolutions

  22. Brazil Independence • Braganza family on throne • 1807: King Joao & the Portuguese royal family flee to Brazil under British escort • 1821: Pedro I set up a new, independent kingdom in 1821 Pedro I

  23. Brazil Independence • 1822: Pedro accepts creation of assembly. Closed it when liberals too popular sovereignty too seriously. • 1824 constitution called for senate appointed for life, emperor’s “moderating power” above other branches. • Anti-Portuguese rioting – Brazil for the Brazilians

  24. Brazil • 1831: Pedro abdicates returns to Portugal, left his son (Pedro) to take his place. He was only 5, but had been born in Brazil. • 1831-1840: Regency years • Liberal rebellions, republics declared, slaves involved • 1840: Prince Pedro put on thrown (14 yrs old)

  25. Political Effects on independence movements • First governments were liberal • Lacked resources and allies • Most republics rapidly fell • Faith in democracy waned • Toppling governments by revolution became system

  26. Political Effects • Patronage (aka spoils) = doling out of government jobs, pensions, public works • Caudillos = strong political leaders who command personal loyalty of many followers

  27. Caudillismo Juan Manuel de Rosas, Argentina Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

  28. Social Effects • Indigenous: little effect • Rural Latin Americans: depended on subsistence farming • Landowners = Power