slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
English Intonation – its Structure & the Use PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
English Intonation – its Structure & the Use

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 42
studs

English Intonation – its Structure & the Use - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1003 Views
Download Presentation
English Intonation – its Structure & the Use
An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. English Pronunciation PracticeA Practical Course for Students of EnglishByWang GuizhenFaculty of English Language & CultureGuangdong University of Foreign Studies

  2. English Intonation – its Structure & the Use

  3. I. Types of English Intonation • 1. Falling tone • 2. Rising tone • 3. Fall-rise tone

  4. II. Structure of English intonation P = Pre-head H = Head N = Nucleus T = Tail

  5. Elements in an intonation unit • The nucleus: the stressed syllable of the last 调核 prominent word in a tone unit • The tail: any syllable or syllables that may 调尾 follow the nucleus • The head: the part of a tone unit that extends from 调头 the first stressed syllable up to the nucleus • The pre-head: any unstressed syllable or syllables that 调冠 may precede the head - or the nucleus, if there is no head

  6. We areLEARNing a FOReignLANGuage. P H N T P = Pre-head H = Head N = Nucleus T = Tail

  7. Structures of an intonation unit • PHNT: We are learning a foreign language. • PHN: I am afraid we can't go. • P NT: We hope so. • P N: It was at night. • H NT: When are they coming? • H N: Peter has arrived. • NT: Look at him. • N: Help!

  8. Structures of an intonation unit • PHNT: We are learning a foreign language. • PHN: I am afraid we can't go. • P NT: We hope so. • P N: It was at night. • H NT: When are they coming? • H N: Peter has arrived. • NT: Look at him. • N: Help!

  9. Circle the prominent word in each thought group. A: I’m starved. Let’s go and grab a bite to eat. B: Good idea. Where do you want to go? A: Well, there’s a nice Italian restaurant about a block from here. B: Do you have your heart set on Italian? What about a Chinese place? A: Oh, do you know one? B: I sure do. The food is delicious and it’s right around the corner. A: Great! Let’s go.

  10. Circle the prominent word in each thought group. A: I’m starved. Let’s go and grab a bite to eat. B: Good idea. Where do you want to go? A: Well, there’s a nice Italian restaurant about a block from here. B: Do you have your heart set on Italian? What about a Chinese place? A: Oh, do you know one? B: I sure do. The food is delicious and it’s right around the corner. A: Great! Let’s go.

  11. III. The use of English intonation The falling tone -- indicating `definiteness' and `completeness'. Types of sentences: Ordinary statements WH questions Imperative sentences (strong commands) Exclamatory sentences

  12. The rising tone - indicating `uncertainty', `incompleteness' or `politeness'. Types of sentences: Yes-no questions Statements intended as questions Statements intended to be soothing or encouraging Repetition questions

  13. The falling-rising tone - showing contrast, implication, disagree- ment, contradiction, or warning, etc. Types of sentences: Statements where contrast is implied Statements which imply reservation Statements which show disagreement or contradiction Warnings

  14. Unit 38 - 16

  15. Unit 39 - 17

  16. Unit 39 -19

  17. a b c Unit 39 - 20

  18. Unit 40-22

  19. Unit 40-25

  20. Unit 41-30

  21. You can answer a question with another question. Unit 41-35

  22. Unit 42-39

  23. IV. The functions of English intonation 1. The accentual function of intonation 2. The grammatical function of intonation 3. The discourse function of intonation 4. The attitudinal function of intonation

  24. 1. The accentual function of intonation The placement of tonic stress is a function of intonation. The location of the tonic syllable is of considerable linguistic impor-tance. The most common position for this is on the last lexical word of the tone unit. For contrastive purpose, however, any word may become the tonic syllable. I arrived in London at last. I arrived in London at last. I arrived in London at last.

  25. 2. The grammatical function of intonation The following sentence is ambiguous when written and the ambiguity can only be removed by using differences of intonation: • ' Those who ' sold ↘↗quickly ' made a ↘profit. • (A profit was made by those who sold quickly.) • ' Those who ↘↗sold ' quickly ' made a ↘profit. • (A profit was quickly made by those who sold.)

  26. Another example is the use of a rising tone with a statement, i.e. the changing of a statement into a question simply by changing the tone from falling to rising: You're a ↘ student. You're a ↗ student? They 're going to 'have a ↘picnic. • They 're going to 'have a ↗picnic.

  27. 3. The discourse function of intonation The speakers tend to focus the listener's attention on aspects of the message that are most important. The placement of nucleus or tonic stress depends on the “information content”: the more predictable a word’s occurrence is in a given context, the lower its information content is. The telephone’s ringing. The kettle’s boiling. -- Did you say a lighter shade? -- No, a brighter shade.

  28. 4. The attitudinal function of intonation Intonation is used to convey one's feelings and attitudes. The same sentence can be said in different ways, which might be labelled `angry', `happy', `grateful', `bored', and so on. Usually, tone groups with high heads sound more lively, interesting than those with low heads. A few generalisations can be made about the attitudinal functions of some components of intonation. Within tone, for example, the fall could be said to be more often associated with completeness and definiteness; the rise is more often associated with incompleteness and uncertainty or questioning, while the fall-rise is said to have feelings of hesitation, contrast, reservation or doubt.

  29. 'Go and ↘ask him! 'Go and ↗ask him. ↘Go and ↗ask him. -- What's your opinion of this article? -- It's 'quite o ↘riginal. -- It's ↘quite o ↗riginal

  30. In this talk, I am going to give some advice on how to present a seminar paper. At one time, most university teaching took the form of giving formal lectures. Nowadays, many university teachers try to involve their students more actively in the learning process. One of the ways in which this is done is by conducting seminars. In a seminar, what usually happens is this. One student is chosen to give his ideas on a certain topic. These ideas are then discussed by the other students (the participants) in the seminar. What I’d like to discuss with you today is the techniques of presenting a paper at a seminar. As you know, there are two main stages involved in this. One is the preparation stage which involves researching and writing up a topic. The other stage is the presentation stage when you actually present the paper to your audience. It is this second stage that I am concerned with now.

  31. Let us therefore imagine that you have been asked to lead off a seminar discussion and that you have done all the necessary preparation. In other words you have done your research and you have written it up. How are you going to present it? There are two ways in which this can be done. The first method is to circulate copies of the paper in advance to all the participants. This gives them time to read it before the seminar, so that they can come already prepared with their own ideas about what you have written. The second method is where there is no time for previous circulation, or there is some other reason why the paper cannot be circulated. In that case, of course, the paper will have to be read aloud to the group, who will probably make their own notes on it while they are listening. • In this talk, I am going to concentrate on the first method, where the paper is circulated in advance, as this is the most efficient way of conducting a seminar; but most of what I am going to say also applies to the second method; and indeed may be useful to remember any time you have to speak in public.