New England colonies
In this section you will learn about the Pilgrims and Puritans, their relations with the Native Americans, and their settlement of the New England colonies.
The Pilgrims were a religious group that separated from the Church of England, who in turn had separated from the Catholic Church.
With a voyage arranged by the Virginia Company, the Pilgrims set sail for America aboard the Mayflower and landed in Plymouth, New England in 1620.
The Pilgrims lived on the ship for over a month before they left. The trip took 66 days. They lived on the ship during the first winter.
The Mayflower crew spotted Cape Cod on November 9. The Pilgrims decided to head south, where it encountered rough seas, and nearly shipwrecked. Rather than risk another attempt, they decided to stay and explore Cape Cod, anchoring in Provincetown Harbor. They explored Cape Cod, trying to decide where they would build their plantation. On December 25, 1620, they decided upon Plymouth.
The Mayflower stayed with the Pilgrims in America the first winter, and departed home for England in April, arriving back home in May 1621. Master Christopher Jones, the ship's captain, died the next year, in March 1622. Christopher Jones owned a fourth of the ship, and when he died the ownership of his share passed to his widow, Josian. Josian, with the other three owners, stopped using the ship, and by May 1624 it had fallen into ruins. It was appraised at that time to a value of just over £128, and because of its very poor condition it was almost certainly broken up and sold off as scrap.
The Pilgrims landed outside the limits of the Virginia Company’s jurisdiction. For the sake of order, the Pilgrims signed an agreement to obey laws established for the good of the colony - the Mayflower Compact. This compact help establish the idea self-government and majority rule in America.
Signing of the Mayflower Compact, a painting by Edward Percy Moran, which hangs at the Plymouth Museum.
After a devastating first winter, a Native American, Squanto, acted as an intermediary between the Pilgrims and local Native American tribes, who in turn taught the pilgrims to plant, grow, and fish.
Squanto(1585?-1622), Native American of the Wampanoag tribe of what is now Massachusetts.
The Plymouth settlement celebrated the blessings of the first good harvest, holding a three day feast. It was the first Thanksgiving.
Most of the Pilgrims on the Mayflower were men. Men were the head of the family. Wives were expected to obey them. Children were expected to obey their Mother and Father. Some of the men brought their wives and children along. After the first winter, only 3 of the 17 wives were still alive to care for the 50 remaining men and children. Nearly half of all the pilgrims died that first winter.
Between 1630 and 1640, a religious group called the Puritans fled England to escape bad treatment by King James I. This became known as the Great Migration.
FOR UNDERSTANDING QUICK CHECK
1) Pilgrims, Reformation 2) Quakers, Great Escape 3) Puritans, first Thanksgiving 4) Puritans, Great Migration Between 1630 and 1640, a religious group called the ______fled England to escape bad treatment by King James I. This became known as the______.
1) Mayday 2) The Quaker festival of Friends 3) Plymouth Day 4) Thanksgiving The Plymouth settlement celebrated the blessings of the first good harvest, holding a three day the feast called ______ .
1) Mayflower Compact 2) Magna Carta 3) Constitution 4) Bill of Rights The Pilgrims signed an agreement to obey laws established for the good of the colony called the______.
1) Santa Maria, Roanoke, 1605 2) Sea venture, Plymouth, 1625 3) Mayflower, Plymouth, 1620 4) Mayflower, Roanoke, 1620 With a voyage arranged by the Virginia Company, the Pilgrims set sail for America aboard the ______ and landed in______ , New England in______.
1) Baptists 2) Mormons 3) Pilgrims 4) Quakers The ______ were a religious group that separated from the Church of England, who in turn had separated from the Catholic Church.
1) Powhatan 2) Squanto 3) Sitting Bull 4) Pocahontas After a devastating first winter, a Native American,______, acted as an intermediary between the Pilgrims and local Native American tribes.
In 1630, about 1,000 pilgrims, working for the Massachusetts Bay Company, settled in New England. John Winthrop became the colonies first Puritan governor.
In 1636, Thomas Hooker moved his congregation to the Connecticut Valley, where they wrote and adopted a rudimentary constitution called the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut.
Roger Williams, a Salem Massachusetts minister, opposed the forced attendance at church and the taking of Native American lands by force practiced by the Pilgrim colonists. He fled to Rhode Island, where he established the first Baptist church in America.
First Baptist Church in America. Williams founded the congregation in 1638
Anne Hutchinson believed that a person could worship God without the help of a church, minister, or Bible. Another group that came to be known as the Quakers, held similar beliefs. Both groups sought sanctuary in Rhode Island after deplorable treatment by the Puritans.