Chapter 1 Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology
Learning Targets • By the end of this lesson, you should be able to: • Explain the difference between anatomy & physiology. • List characteristics that all animals share. • List the requirements of animals. • Name the 11 systems of the body. • Explain the functions of each of the 11 systems of the body.
Anatomy and Physiolog • Anatomy -- deals with the structure of the body and its parts • Physiology -- studies the functions (jobs)of these parts • A & P are closely related because structure is related to function.
More common to discover new information about physiology, but anatomical discoveries are being made as well Example (from July, 2008): A hundred years ago, the spleen (located in the upper quadrant of the abdomen) was thought to be only reservoir for blood. It has only been in recent years that scientists discovered that the spleen is a manufacturing plant for immune cells, and a site where immune cells and nerves interact. The spleen defends the body against infection, particularly encapsulated bacteria that circulate through the blood. In a major step in understanding how the nervous system and the immune system interact, scientists at The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research have identified a new anatomical path through which the brain and the spleen communicate.
Characteristics of animal life include: (click for video) (all animals have all of these in common) 1. Movement – self-initiated change in position, motion of internal parts 2. Response to stimuli 3. Growth 4. Respiration– oxygen in, carbon dioxide out 5. Digestion 6. Absorption– nutrients taken into bloodstream 7. Circulation– movement of substances in bodily fluids 8. Assimilation– changing absorbed substances into chemically different forms
9. Excretion – removal of wastes 10. Reproduction **To remember this list, image yourself doing these things….
Mental Mapping • I ride my bike Subway (movement). • I stop at the traffic light (response) • My body is growing (growth) • I am breathing air (respiration) • I get a footlong BMT and 3 cookies and eat it all(digestion). • The protein from my sandwich is absorbed into my body (absorption) • The nutrients from the sandwich circulate in my body (circulation) • The proteins and other nutrients are changed to things my body needs (assimilation) • Eventually, I go to the bathroom (excretion) • Someday I may reproduce (reproduction)
The total of all the chemical reactions that are continuously at work to maintain these characteristics is referred to as metabolism. • Fast metabolism—these people use the energy in food (measured in calories) more quickly than others • Slow metabolism—these people use the energy in food more slowly
Requirements of Organisms: • Life depends on the availability of the following: a. Water b. Food c. Oxygen d. Heat (a by-product of metabolism; its presence governs the rate at which reactions occur) e. Pressure (force required to facilitate movement of air or fluids)
Organization of the Human Body • Major features of the human body include its cavities, membranes, and organ systems.
Body Cavities: • The body can be divided into an appendicular portion (upper and lower limbs) and an axial portion (head, neck, and trunk), which includes a dorsal and a ventral cavity. Organs within these cavities are called viscera.
1. Integumentary system--skin, hair, nails, and various glands • covers the body, senses changes outside the body, and helps regulate body temperature.
2. Skeletal system -- bones & ligaments. • It supports, protects, provides frameworks, stores inorganic salts, and houses blood-forming tissues.
Muscular system – consists of muscles • provides body movement, posture, and is the main source of body heat.
Nervous system -- brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sense organs. • It integrates incoming information from receptors and sends impulses to muscles and glands.
5. Endocrine system –includes all of the glands that secrete hormones • helps to integrate metabolic functions
6. Cardiovascular system -- heart and blood vessels • distributes oxygen and nutrients throughout the body while removing wastes from the cells.
7. Lymphatic system --lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, thymus, and spleen • drains excess tissue fluid and includes cells of immunity
Digestive system --mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, and accessory organs. • Receives, breaks down, and absorbs nutrients.
Respiratory system – lungs & passageways • exchanges gases between the blood and air
10. Urinary system -- kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, • removes wastes from the blood and helps to maintain water and electrolyte balance.
11. Reproductive system – male repro. system consists of testes, accessory organs, and vessels that conduct sperm to penis --female repro. system consists of ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, and external genitalia. • Function in creation of new life
“Anatomical Position” • Standing erect • Facing forward with legs slightly apart • Palms up
You do not need to write the info from this slide down in your notes….you have flashcards of these terms • Anatomical Terminology • Relative Positions: 1. Terms of relative position are used to describe the location of a part relative to another part. 2. Terms of relative position include: superior, inferior, anterior, posterior, medial, lateral, proximal, distal, superficial (peripheral), and deep.
You do not need to write the info on this slide down in your notes….you have flashcards of these terms • Body Sections: 1. A sagittal section divides the body into right and left portions. 2. A transverse section divides the body into superior and inferior portions. It is often called a “cross section”. 3. A coronal section divides the body into anterior and posterior sections.