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  1. Warm-up • Update your Table of Contents • Write your homework – have it stamped • Get your “Fungi Assignment” out to be checked! • Get something to grade you test with!

  2. Classwork/Homework Research any disease and find out the following: 1) What type of pathogen causes it 2) What the symptoms are 3) How can it be treated 4) Any other interesting info about it 5) Picture Compile all of this information onto a “poster” (printer size paper) that can be displayed for a “Pathogen Poster Walk” so others can learn about your disease as well!

  3. Pathogens Cause Disease • We will focus on 4 Types of Pathogens: • Fungi • Bacteria • Viruses • Parasites

  4. Fungi Fact Review • Open to your Fungi Notes • What would you ask about on a Fungi quiz?

  5. Fungi Pop Quiz • You can keep your notes out – YOU MAY USE ONLY YOUR NOTES! • When you are done, flip it over so we can correct them…you will have 10 minutes!

  6. ERT = Everybody Reads To… • Turn to page NC-22 in the back of the book. • We will read one paragraph at a time, discuss the answers to the questions, & then take notes in the box for that topic.

  7. ERT Paragraph 1 - Pathogens

  8. Pathogens Pathogen - Anything that can cause disease or harm • Also referred to as microbes or germs • Virus, Bacteria & Parasites are the 3 main types of disease spreading pathogens

  9. Types of Diseases • Non-communicable: • - Not infectious or contagious • Cannot be passed from person to person • Can be due to genetics, lifestyle choices, or environmental factors • EXAMPLES: Cancer, Alzheimer’s, Arthritis, Heart Disease, Diabetes • Communicable - Infectious or Contagious: • Caused by a Microbe entering body and reproducing – Bacteria, Virus, Parasite • Easily spread between individual organisms • EXAMPLES: Cold, Influenza, (Flu) Strep Throat

  10. ERT Paragraph 2 - viruses

  11. Virus • Composed of DNA or RNA enclosed in a protein shell • NOT LIVING – Needs a host to reproduce • Very small • Vaccines used to treat

  12. How a Virus Attacks a Cell… •

  13. ERT Paragraph 3 - bacteria

  14. Bacteria • Living organisms • Unicellular, prokaryotic • Larger than viruses, but usually more treatable • Antibiotics used to treat

  15. Fun Fact: Clean skin has about 20 million bacteria per square inch…

  16. Bacteria & Cell Phones •

  17. ERT Paragraph 4 - parasites

  18. Parasites • Living organisms that need a host to survive – highly adapted to their host • Unicellular or multicellular • Come in many shapes and sizes

  19. Maggots in My Head • Tapeworm in My Eye

  20. Classwork/Homework Research any disease and find out the following: 1) What type of pathogen causes it 2) What the symptoms are 3) How can it be treated 4) Any other interesting info about it 5) Picture Compile all of this information onto a “poster” (printer size paper) that can be displayed for a “Pathogen Poster Walk” so others can learn about your disease as well!

  21. Warm-up • Update your Table of Contents • Write your homework – have it stamped • Tape your disease research homework to a wall around the room – MAKE SURE YOUR FIRST & LAST NAME IS VISIBLE ON THE FRONT OF IT!

  22. What Was A Pathogen Again…? • Pathogens are anything that cause disease…they are also referred to as microbes and germs

  23. What Were the 4 Pathogens We Are Focusing On Again…? • Fungi • Bacteria • Viruses • Parasites

  24. Warm Up: Comparing & Contrasting Pathogens Turn to page 5 and answer the following questions: • How are viruses and bacteria similar/different? • How are parasites and viruses similar/different? • How are fungal diseases similar/different to any of the other pathogens? • Which type of pathogen would you consider most serious and why?

  25. Pathogen Poster Walk • Which disease did you research? • Walk around and view the various diseases people have researched. • Copy down information for 3 that are different from your own including the pathogen that causes it, symptoms & treatment!

  26. Who Figures All of This Out? • An Epidemiologist is a scientist who studies diseases including how they start, spread and how they are treated. (First thing on the note guide)

  27. Spreading Disease… How does it happen…LET’S INVESTIGATE!?

  28. Finding Patient Zero • Each person will receive a test tube and a syringe • You will carefully go around the room and trade fluids with 2 other people using the syringe • Remember who you trade with and in what order • When completed, sit down and write down who you traded with first and second

  29. Contagions • Many pathogens are also said to be contagions • Contagions – capable of being spread by direct or indirect contact (in other words…contagious)

  30. How Do Pathogens Cause Harm? • They can change what your cells do • Especially viruses Mutagen – something that actually changes or “mutates” the genetic material of an organism

  31. How do pathogens spread? • 4 main ways that pathogens are transferred: • Person to person • Food and water • Environment • Animals

  32. People to People… • Carrier – a person who is infected and can infect others but may not show the symptoms of the disease themselves

  33. Types of Carriers 1. Symptomatic: • they show symptoms of the disease; they are SICK • they are actively spreading disease particles to others while they are sick • May be coughing, sneezing, have runny nose • EX: Influenza, Chicken Pox, Common Cold 2. Asymptomatic: • Does not appear to be sick • Can still actively spread disease to others • EX: HIV

  34. Typhoid Mary

  35. Food and Water • Contaminated food and water can spread pathogens, below are a few examples: = - Infected animals - Food or water that comes from unsanitary areas or isn’t cleaned - Eating raw or undercooked food

  36. Environments • Moist • A lot like water • Average temperatures • Not too hot or too cold • Limited exposure to fresh air • More ability to reproduce • Sunlight • Good for some, bad for others • Food sources • Sugars or decaying material

  37. Animals • Vector – Insects and animals that spread disease to humans • EXAMPLES: • Fleas – transmit the plague (bacterial) • Ticks – transmit Lyme disease (bacterial) • Mosquitoes – transmit Malaria (parasitic), West Nile Virus, Yellow Fever (both viral)

  38. Mythbusters: Flu Fiction • How Easily Can Pathogens Really Spread?

  39. Treatment/Medicine • Antibiotics – Medicine that prevents the growth and reproduction of bacteria • Vaccines – A weak dose of a virus that helps your immune system kill the real virus later

  40. Preventing the Spread… • Eat right, get enough rest, avoid stress • Antibacterial soaps and antimicrobial solutions (don’t overuse) • Antibiotics (don’t overuse) • Get vaccinated • Covering our mouths when we cough or sneeze • Avoid unnecessary contact with people, animals or objects that could be contaminated! • Keep studying diseases and how they adapt and change!

  41. Questions??

  42. Warning…Outbreak! • Create a warning poster, warning sign, comic, commercial jingle or brochure or any other format you can think of warning your neighborhood about a possible disease outbreak! • Things to include: • Name: disease (real or fictional) • Mugshot: picture • Description of suspect: virus, bacteria, parasite? • Crimes: how does it attack? how does it spread? symptoms? common victims? • How can you prevent being infected? • Reward??? Must be informational, but can also be silly!!

  43. Examples

  44. Warm-up • Update your Table of Contents • Write your homework – have it stamped • Put your Warning…Outbreak! assignment in the basket

  45. Quick Recap • Antibiotics treat what type of pathogen? Vaccines? • Why do we not want to overuse antibiotics, antibacterial cleaners or antimicrobial solutions? • Describe the job of an epidemiologist. • Why do you think that diseases that are no longer an issue in the United States are still a problem in other parts of the world?

  46. Quick Recap • People that are infected with a disease are called something different than animals infected with a disease… • What is the difference between a contagion and mutagen and how do they relate to communicable vs. non-communicable diseases • Why is it important to know where the people you associate with have been and who they have been in contact with?

  47. The Rate of Spread… • How quickly a disease spreads, and size of the area it spreads to are key factors in the study of epidemiology… • Outbreak - The Cholera Story

  48. Cholera Background • Cholera is a disease that is spread by bacteria in water or through person-to-person contact. The onset of cholera can appear with little or no warning, and include symptoms such as diarrhea, acute spasmodic vomiting and painful cramping. The victim can lose up to 5 gallons of liquid within 24 hours consequently causing severe dehydration accompanied by cyanosis, a condition in which the skin turns blue, skin also begins to pucker and become cold…death may occur in as little as a few hours.

  49. The Cholera Story • Imagine yourself in London, the year is 1849…what would your life be like? Suddenly, people in your neighborhood begin to get sick and die very quickly. You hear your parents whispering that this isn’t the first time they have seen this type of sickness…it happened before in 1832 and nobody really knew what to do. This time however, a doctor, John Snow, comes with a new idea…

  50. The Cholera Story • He thought that if he checked the city’s death records and mapped out exactly where people were living when they died, he might find some clues as to what was causing the disease and therefore how to stop it from spreading any further.