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How many stages of cell division do you see in this image? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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How many stages of cell division do you see in this image?. Cells reproduce by a cycle of growing and dividing called the cell cycle. . This graph is NOT to scale!!. Cell Cycle. Mitosis will be our main focus. First, we will look at Interphase…. ). Interphase.

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Presentation Transcript
slide3

This graph is NOT to scale!!

Cell Cycle

Mitosis will be our main focus.

First, we will look at Interphase…

)

interphase
Interphase
  • Longest stage of cell cycle (90%)
  • Nucleus is visible
  • Cell is growing during G1 and G2and DNA is being replicated (copied) during S.

)

interphase 3 phases

Most of these cells are in Interphase

Interphase:3 Phases
  • G1: Cell is Growing
  • S: DNA is Synthesized (DNA Replication)
  • G2: Cell growth; Organelles duplicate in preparation for division

)

limits to cell growth
Limits to Cell Growth

Total Surface Area:

Height x Width x Number of sides x Number of boxes

Total Volume:

Height x Width x Length x Number of boxes

Surface-to-volume ratio:

Surface Area/ Total Volume

6

150

750

1

125

125

6

1.2

6

what s the problem with a low surface to volume ratio
What’s the problem with a low surface-to-volume ratio?
  • There are not enough materials entering the cell to meet its demands
  • Materials have trouble leaving the cell.
  • The cell can’t make enough mRNA or proteins to meet the demands of the cell.

O2

CO2

CO2

O2

CO2

CO2

CO2

CO2

CO2

CO2

what are the key roles of cell division
What are the key roles of cell division?
  • Cell division functions in:
    • Reproduction for some organisms
    • Growth of an organism from a fertilized egg
    • Repair of cells that die from normal wear and tear or accidents
  • Cell division distributes identical sets of chromosomes to daughter cells
key vocabulary
Key Vocabulary
  • DNA molecules are packaged into .
    • Human (body cells) have 46
    • Human (sperm or eggs) have 23
  • Chromosomes are made of a material called .

chromosomes

somatic cells

chromosomes.

gametes

chromosomes.

chromatin

key vocabulary1
Key Vocabulary

Chromosome

  • Chromatin is composed of and .
  • DNA is supercoiled around proteins called .
  • Together the DNA and histone proteins form bead-like structures called

DNA

proteins

histones

nucleosomes

Histones

DNA

key vocabulary2
Key Vocabulary
  • The chromosome is duplicated during ___ in _____________.
  • Each duplicated chromosome consists

of two

.

  • These are connected by a .

S

interphase

sister

chromatids

centromere

mitosis m phase
Mitosis (M Phase)

The M Phase consists of:

  • Mitosis and Cytokinesis

Four Stages of Mitosis:

Prophase

Metaphase

Anaphase

Telophase

preparing for division
Preparing for Division

Late Interphase: G2

Centrosomes (with centriole pairs)

1.Nuclear membrane still visible

Nucleolus

2.Chromatin has been replicated

preparing for division1
Preparing for Division

Late Interphase: G2

Prophase

Centromere

Early Spindle Apparatus

3.Nuclear membrane disappears

4.Chromosome consisting of two sister chromatids

slide15

Metaphase

5. Chromosomes line up at an imaginary line between the centrosomes at opposite ends of the cell.

6.The spindle attaches to the centromeres.

slide16

Anaphase

7.Spindles pull the “daughter” chromosomes appart

slide17

Telophase

Telophase & Cytokinesis

8. Two nuclei become visible

In animal cells, a cleavage furrowis visible

In plant cells, a cell plate is now visible

Cytokinesis

9.The cytoplasm and organelles divide.

interphase 3 phases1

RE-identify the stages of Mitosis

Interphase:3 Phases
  • G1: Cell is Growing
  • S: DNA is Synthesized (DNA Replication)
  • G2: Organelles duplicate in preparation for division

)

what s the end product
What’s the end product?
  • Two identical daughter cells ready to start the cycle again… or not.
  • Some cells (like your nerve and muscle cells) do not undergo division.
  • For those that do (your skin and the lining of your intestinal tract) how would you know how quickly division takes place?