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The Cell Cycle. THE CELL CYCLE. The Cell Cycle. Cell Reproduction One cell (parent cell) reproduces to make 2 identical cells (daughter cells ). There are three main divisions of the cell cycle. INTERPHASE G1, S, G2 MITOSIS PMAT Cytokinesis.
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The Cell Cycle • Cell Reproduction • One cell (parent cell) reproduces to make 2 identical cells (daughter cells)
There are three main divisions of the cell cycle • INTERPHASE • G1, S, G2 • MITOSIS • PMAT • Cytokinesis
Interphase Overall • Cell grows in size and metabolizes • Chromosomes duplicated
Interphase has three divisions 1st phase= G1 Cell grows in size and lives its life
“S” of Interphase (synthesis phase) DNA duplicates itself (DNA Replication)Chromatin duplicates – long coily strands of DNA that become wrapped up
G2 = Rapid Growth before dividing • Organelles are doubled to have enough for two cells
Mitosis • Prophase • A.) Chromatin organizes itself into condensed chromosomes made up of 2 sister chromatids attached by a centromere • Sister Chromatids – A chromosome and its duplicated twin • Centromere – rubber band structure that joins the 2 sister chromatids together
Prophase • B.) Nuclear membrane breaks down • Nucleus dissolves • C.) Centrioles move to opposite ends of the cell (poles) • Centrioles – cylinder structures that will reel in the chromatids • D.) Spindle fibers form • Spindle fibers – football shaped set of ropes that will attach to the centrioles and the chromatids • Made of microtubules
Mitosis • Metaphase • Spindle fibers attach to centrioles and sister chromatids at their centromeres. • Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell • Line up on the metaphase plate/equator.
Mitosis • Anaphase • The centromeres split apart and the sister chromatids separate from each other • The spindle fibers pull the chromatids toward the poles
Mitosis • Telophase • Chromatids reach the poles • Chromosomes unwind • Spindle fibers break down • Nucleus reforms • Cell begins to split • Cleavage furrow
After Mitosis… • Cytokinesis • Cells Separate