Warm-Up • Define salutary neglect. • Explain the outcome of the French and Indian War. • Why did Nathanial Bacon lead a rebellion in Virginia in 1676? • Explain what the Proclamation of 1763 did to the colonists? Be sure to define it and discuss its impact.
Causes of the Revolution • Salutary Neglect • Colonist like being in charge • Stamp Act • Must purchase stamped paper for • Legal documents • Licenses • Newspapers • Playing cards
Stamp Act Protests • Sons of Liberty – founded by Samuel Adams • Harassed custom workers, stamp agents.
Townshend Acts • Duties or Taxes placed on imported goods • Glass • Lead • Paint • Paper • Tea
Boston Massacre – March 5, 1770 • Mob of citizens is shot by British Soldiers. • Mob was provoking the soldiers. • Used as propaganda • Newspapers said the British massacred innocent civilians
Boston Tea Party • British East India Tea Company • Going bankrupt • Allowed to sell tea to colonies without paying taxes • Cut local merchants from the tea trade. • Dec 16, 1773 – rebels dumped tea in the harbor.
Intolerable Acts • King George III’s response • Closes Boston Harbor • Quartering Act • Troops stationed in houses • General Gage became Gov. of Mass. • Martial law • First Continental Congress • Discussed colonial rights.
Lexington and Concord • “The shot heard round the world” • British go to seize weapons • Paul Revere’s Midnight Ride • Warn towns, Hancock and S. Adams • Minutemen • Civilian soldiers
Lexington • First shots of the war • 70 minutemen await the British • Shots are fired on the village green • 8 killed, 10 wounded
Concord • Brief skirmish • British march back to Boston • Along the way 3-4 thousand minutemen ambush the troops while hiding behind trees and walls • Dozens of British soldiers are killed • The war had begun
2nd Continental Congress • John Adams – leader for independence • Many still want reconciliation • They form the Continental Army • General George Washington • Prints money, sets up foreign relations committee
Warm-Up • Which act put taxes or duties on multiple imports? • What group was founded to protest British policy? • What was the impact of the Boston Massacre on the colonial opinion of England? • Who was the commander of the Continental Army?
Patriots and Loyalists • Patriots • Economic opportunity • Farmers, artisans, merchants, landowners • German colonists • Loyalists • Numbers unknown, fewer as war goes on • Some worked for British, some thought Britain would win the war, some believed the King would be better at protecting their rights • Many remain neutral
United States • Strengths – familiar with the land, inspiring cause, good leadership • Weaknesses – untrained soldiers, shortage of food and ammunition, inferior navy, no strong government
Great Britain • Strengths – strong, well trained army and navy, strong central government, support of loyalists and Native Americans • Weaknesses – far away from home, unfriendly civilian population, troops unfamiliar with the terrain, weak military leaders, sympathy of some British politicians for the Americans
Battle of Bunker Hill • Militia build fortifications on Breed’s Hill • Gage decides to strike • “Don’t fire until you see the whites of their eyes” • After two failed assaults the British take the colonists positions • British suffer over 1,000 casualties, their largest loss of the war
Siege of Boston • Henry Knox – Artillery officer, brings cannons from Fort Ticonderoga • 11 month siege • Ends when artillery is in place, Howe (British Commander) knew he could no longer hold the city
Olive Branch Petition • 2nd Continental Congress • July 8, 1775 – Send petition to King George III urging a return to the former harmony between the colonies and Britain • King George says no
Common Sense • By Thomas Paine • Pamphlet that urged the colonists to support independence • Sold 500,000 copies • Very persuasive
Background • Where did the ideas of the American Revolution come from?
Thomas Hobbes1588 - 1679 • Argued that people were “bad” by nature • Book Leviathan
Thomas Hobbes’s Social Contract • Government is based on a social contract • Must have a strong central government • Not having government leads to never ending war due to his views of human nature • A strong central government provides protection and order • In return people give up their natural rights
John Locke1632 - 1704 • Enlightenment • What rights do people have? • Natural Rights from God • Life, liberty, and property
John Locke’s Social Contract • People give the government their consent • The government in turn must protect their natural rights • The people then must obey the government’s laws and rules • If the government does not protect their rights the people can overthrow the government
John Locke • His views were radical for their time • They challenged the old practice of dictatorial rule King George III
Which philosopher’s views were used during the American Revolution? Discuss why the founding fathers used those views.Write a paragraph explaining your answer, you will add to this later.
Declaration of Independence • Thomas Jefferson – Main author • John Adams and Benjamin Franklin help edit • Congress wanted a formal document to explain why the colonies wanted their independence
Declaration of Independence • The ideas of John Locke are used throughout the document • Natural rights, right to overthrow the government • “All men are created equal” • What did it mean? • Jefferson refers to “He”, who is talking about?
How long could this really last? • A battle between divided colonists (approx. 2.5 million) and the world’s dominate power. • Colonial troops were underfed, under-clothed, untrained, undisciplined, and rarely paid. • Who is going to enforce wartime policies? • The Continental Army (C.A.) did have: home field advantage, cause to fight for, and strong military leadership.
Early Colonial Defeats Bunker Hill • Gage decided to attack C.A. on Breed’s Hill. • Three bloody British attacks up the hill. • Colonists forced to retreat due to a lack of ammunition. • Deadliest battle of the war-450 Colonial casualties/1,000 British.
Early Colonial Defeats (cont.) New York • 32,000 British troops (includes thousands of mercenaries) vs. 23,000 colonial troops. • British wanted to isolate New England. • C.A. defeated and forced to retreat across the Delaware River into Pennsylvania. • Low-point for Washington: • Many deserters and casualties. • Initial enlistments were to end on December 31, 1776. • In desperate need of a victory.
The Tide Begins to Turn • Christmas night 1776-Washington led troops across Delaware River to Hessian garrison at Trenton. • The surprise attack resulted in 30 enemy deaths, 918 prisoners, and 6 captured cannons. • This and another victory eight days later at Princeton provided a much-needed boost of confidence.
Valley Forge • 2,000 men die from disease • Army lacks supplies and food • Three important events take place while the army is at Valley Forge • 1. Friedrich von Steuben trains the army • 2. Army fixes supply problems • 3. French alliance takes place in Feb 1778 • Sign the Treaty of Alliance
The Turning Point • Another British plan to isolate New England. • British troops struggle with terrain (have to carry supplies, artillery, personal effects) and lack of food. • British surrounded by General Horatio Gates at Saratoga and forced to surrender (October 17, 1776).
The Turning Point (cont.) Impact: • New British strategy: stay near the coast. • France joins the fight: Treaty of Alliance • Benjamin Franklin negotiated a treaty with France: • Agreed to support the revolution. • Recognized American independence and entered into a military alliance with the colonies. • Agreed not to make peace with Britain until Britain acknowledged American independence. • Played a major role in the ultimate American victory.
The Final Chapter • The British suffered from a lack of support for the war in Great Britain. • The Continental Army becomes a more effective fighting force (von Steuben). • French reinforcements ultimately help shift the balance in war (Lafayette). • General Cornwallis commanded British troops in the south. • Wanted to take Virginia and then move north. • Set-up on peninsula at Yorktown.
The Final Chapter (cont.) • French navy defeated the British at the entrance to the Chesapeake Bay. • 17,000 American/French troops surrounded Cornwallis’ 7,500 men. • Laid siege to Yorktown for three weeks. • Cornwallis surrendered on October 17, 1781.
The Treaty of Paris (1783) • Negotiations between America, Britain, France, and Spain. • John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, and John Jay represented America. • Treaty signed in September 1783: • America given full independence. • Boundaries between Atlantic Ocean and Mississippi River and Canada and Florida.
Symbol of Liberty • Egalitarianism – belief in equality of all people • Lower class soldiers and upper class officers • Only applies to white males • Slavery continues • Some northern states begin to outlaw slavery • Native Americans are threatened