THE CHALLENGE TOWARDS FASTER MICROPROCESSOR ABU HASSAN SAAD 82483 NORLELAWATI ABDUL AZIZ 82494 IRENE YONG SEOK CHING 82991 RAIZATUL UMMI YUNUS 82499
The first single chip CPU Intel 4004 4-bit processor meant for a calculator. Processed data in 4 bits Instructions were 8 bits long. Program 4K Data memory 1K There were also sixteen 4-bit (or eight 8-bit) general purpose registers.
The 4004 had 46 instructions 2,300 transistors in a 16-pin DIP. It ran at a clock rate of 740 kHz (eight clock cycles per CPU cycle of 10.8 microseconds)
WHAT CAN 4004 DO ? 4004 CAN BE PROGRAMMED !! I CAN BUILT A CALCULATOR !!!!!!
The 4000 family • 4001 - 2,048-bit ROM memory • 4002 - 320-bit RAM memory • 4003 - 10-bit I/O shift register • 4004 - 4-bit central processor • The 4004 housed 2300 transistors on a 3mm x 4mm die.
CALCULATOR IS NOT GOOD ENOUGH I WANT A BETTER CALCULATOR
8008 (1972) • The 8008 increased the 4004's word length from four to eight bits, and doubled the volume of information that could be processed. • It was still an invention in search of a market however, as the technology world was just beginning to view the microprocessor as a solution to many needs.
CALCULATOR IS NOT ENOUGH I WANT SOMETHING BETTER
WHAT ABOUT 8080 ?The 8080 was 20 times as fast as the 4004 and contained twice as many transistors (5000). 8-bit chip Used it in a wide variety of products. Use in the first kit computerthe Altair.
The computer is TOO SLOW I WANT A FASTER COMPUTER
8088 (1979) Will This Satisfy You? A 16-bit processor with an 8-bit external bus. IBM chose it for its first PC. The success of the IBM PC and its clones gave Intel a dominant position in the semiconductor industry.
You know, 80286 (1982) is faster. With 16 MB of addressable memory and 1 GB of virtual memory, this 16-bit chip is referred to as the first "modern" microprocessor. became the dominant chip of its time. It contained 130,000 transistors and packed serious compute power (12 MHz) into a tiny footprint.
80386 (1985), 80486 (1989) Reduce Instruction Set Computer (RISC) The price/performance curve continued its steep climb with the 386 and later the 486 -- 32-bit processors that brought real computing to the masses. The 386, which became the best-selling microprocessor in history, featured 275,000 transistors; the 486 had more than a million
NAME DATE MANUFACTURER SPEED (MHZ) NUMBER OF TRANSISTORS Itanium 2000 Intel 800 and up 25.4-60 million Pentium III 1999 Intel 500-1000(1G) 9.5-28 million Xeon Pentium III 1999 Intel 400-1000 (1G) 9.5 - 28 million Celeron 1998 Intel 266-633 19 million Pentium I 1998 Intel 400-450 7.5-27.4 million Xeon Athlon 1999 AMD 500-1100(1.1G) 22 million AMD-K6-III 1999 AMD 400-450 21.3 million AMD-K6-2 1998 AMD 366-533 9.3 million AMD-K6 1998 AMD 300 8.8 million Pentium II 1997 Intel 233-450 7.5 million Pentium 1997 Intel 166-233 4.5 million MMX Pentium Pro 1995 Intel 150-200) 5.5 million Pentium 1993 Intel 75-200 3.3 million
Manufacturing strategies for making faster processors is the process. Let see processes of making microprocessors .
Silicon Wafers cut from an ingot of pure silicon, are used by Intel to make microprocessors. Silicon, the primary ingredient of beach sand, is a semiconductor of electricity. Semiconductors are materials that can be altered to be either a conductor or an insulator.
Chemicals and gases are used throughout the chip-making process. Some, like hexamethyldisilazane, are complex and difficult to pronounce. Others, such as boron, are simple elements found in the Periodic Table of the Elements.
Metals, such as aluminum and copper, are used to conduct the electricity throughout the microprocessor. Gold is also used to connect the actual chip to its package.
Ultraviolet (UV) Light has very short wavelengths and is just beyond the violet end of the visible spectrum. UV light is used to expose patterns on the layers of the microprocessor in a process much like photography.
Masks used in the chip-making process are like stencils. When used with UV light, masks create the various circuit patterns on each layer of the microprocessor.
Fabrication Microprocessors are built in layers on a silicon wafer through various processes using chemicals, gases, and light. Although several microprocessors are built on a single wafer, in this example , only a small piece of a microprocessor is considered .
On the wafer, the first layer of silicon dioxide is grown by exposing it to extreme heat and gas. This growth is similar to the way rust grows on metal when exposed to water. The silicon dioxide on the wafer, however, grows much faster and is too thin to be seen by the naked eye.
The wafer is then coated with a substance called photoresist. Photoresist becomes soluble when exposed to ultraviolet light.
Layering In a process called photolithography, ultraviolet light is then passed through a patterned mask, or stencil, onto the silicon wafer. The mask protects parts of the wafer from the light. The light turns the exposed areas into a gooey layer of photoresist. Each layer on the microprocessor uses a mask with a different pattern.
Etching The gooey photoresist is completely dissolved by a solvent. This reveals a pattern of photoresist made by the mask on the silicon dioxide. The revealed silicon dioxide is etched away with chemicals. The rest of the photoresist is removed. This process leaves ridges of silicon dioxide on the silicon wafer base.
Layers To begin another layer, a second, thinner layer of silicon dioxide is grown over the ridges and etched areas of the wafer base. Then, a layer of polysilicon and another layer of photoresist are applied. Ultraviolet light is then passed through a second mask, exposing a new pattern on the photoresist..
The photoresist is dissolved with solvent to expose the polysilicon and silicon dioxide, which are then etched away with chemicals. The remaining photoresist is removed, leaving ridges of polysilicon and silicon dioxide.
Ion implantation (also called doping) The exposed areas of the silicon wafer are bombarded with various chemical impurities called ions. . Ions are implanted in the silicon wafer to alter the way silicon in these areas conducts electricity.
Layers upon Layers The layering and masking processes are repeated, creating windows that allow for connections to be made between the layers. Atoms of metal are deposited on the wafer, filling the windows. Another masking and etching stage leaves strips of the metal that make the electrical connections. Roughly 20 layers are connected to form the microprocessor's circuitry in a 3-dimensional structure. The exact number of layers on a wafer depends on the design of the microprocessor.
Multiple Processors So far, we've built only a tiny portion of a microprocessor. In reality, making microprocessors is much more complex, demanding more than 250 steps. Consequently, hundreds of identical microprocessors are created in batches on a single wafer. On the wafer, the microscopic circuitry of each and every microprocessor is tested. Then the wafer is cut with a diamond saw, separa
Processes to improve CPU speed 1 Find better materials 2. Photolithography - use “smaller” light . 3. Find better conducting metal
Silicon is the best known semiconductor today for microprocessor fabrication Something with low diaelectric constant - lower than silicon dioxide
Lithography : Optical Lithography Ultra Violet Lithography Electron Lithograpgy
SCALPEL SCALPEL, for "scattering with angular limitation projection electron beam lithography", is a technology based on electron beam lithography
Copper for interconnections 1. Copper conducts electron better 2. Require less power than aluminium 3. Copper operates at faster speeds than aluminium:
The fastest CPU available in the market today is Pentium 4 , 1.8 Giga Herzt. In august 2000, IBM demonstrated a 2GHz pentium 4 chip . The is based on an entirely new microarchitecture design .
Nanotube ( 1999 ) Carbon nanotubes are rolled-up sheets of graphite only few angstroms in diameter (about 10 Atoms ) It is single molecul 500 times smaller than silicon . Radiate less heat compared to silicon Uses less electrical power
Megabait IBM cipta litar komputer molekul Dalam usaha mencapai sasaran yang begitu lama dicari-cari dalam penyelidikan pengkomputeran, para saintis telah erjaya mencipta litar komputer berasaskan satu molekul tunggal, yang diramalkan akan mencetuskan pembinaan cip-cip jauh lebih kecil dan pantas tetapi hanya memerlukan kuasa janaan amat kecil.
26 August 2001 ( Sunday last week . See Megabyte Utusan Malaysia 30 Ogos 2001 ) IBM anounced their scientist has fabricated a logic circuit base on micro cylindrical structure from carbon atoms 100,000 smaller than human hair . They use nanotube to make NOT gate , the basic cuircuit for making processor
WHAT AFTER NANOTUBE ? There are rooms for achieving higher speeds in the future. An analysts say the new chip should be able to reach speeds of 10 gigahertz or so in five years. So if you intend to buy a new computer, wait until then.
Think about it Does the user demand for higher speed OR The demand is imposed to the user?