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Learning & Maladaptive Behavior

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Learning & Maladaptive Behavior. Lesson 17. Maladaptive Behavior. Detrimental to well-being/survival How is it acquired? Normal learning mechanisms Operant (Instrumental) learning overt behaviors Respondent learning CERs physiological responses covert behaviors ~.

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maladaptive behavior
Maladaptive Behavior
  • Detrimental to well-being/survival
  • How is it acquired?
    • Normal learning mechanisms
  • Operant (Instrumental) learning
    • overt behaviors
  • Respondent learning
    • CERs
    • physiological responses
    • covert behaviors ~
maladaptive learning respondent
Maladaptive Learning: Respondent
  • Conditioned Emotional Responses
    • fear/anxiety
    • anticipatory pain
  • Phobias
  • Depression
  • Panic Disorder
    • With agoraphobia
  • Post-traumatic stress-disorder ~
conditioned emotional responses
Conditioned Emotional Responses
  • Acquired Motivation
    • Motivates maladaptive behaviors
    • covert behavior: Fear & Anxiety
    • Pavlovian
  • Self-medication
    • Addictive behaviors
    • Mood modification
    • Via behavior or substance use
    • acquisition by operant ~
maladaptive eating behaviors
Maladaptive Eating Behaviors
  • Higher incidence of
    • depression & anxiety
    • OCD & substance abuse
    • women: relationship problems
  • Maintained via reinforcement
    • self-medication
  • Obesity
    • positive & negative reinforcement
    • health problems ~
eating disorders
Eating Disorders
  • Anorexia nervosa
    • little or no eating
  • Bulimia
    • binge & purge
  • Motivation?
    • Negative body image  anxiety
    • lack of control
  • Control eating  RFT ~
substance abuse addiction
Substance Abuse & Addiction
  • Abused/Addictive drugs
    • Positive reinforcers
    • Negative reinforcers
    • Aversive aftereffects
  • Normal reinforcement mechanisms
    • Same as natural reinforcers
  • Strengthens drug-taking behavior
    • Addiction: compulsive use ~
abusive relationships
Abusive Relationships
  • Why do women stay with men who physically abuse them?
    • Pain as punishment
  • Honeymoon phase as Pos RFT
    • Initially
    • later following abuse
  • History of punishing behavior
    • early weak  later severe
    • habituation ~
obsessive compulsive disorder
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
  • Obsessions
    • Persistent, intrusive thoughts
    • Produce anxiety
  • Compulsions
    • Repetitive behaviors
    • Reduce anxiety
  • Acquired & maintained by…
    • Negative reinforcement ~
learned helplessness
Learned Helplessness
  • Animal model of depression
  • No contingency b/n behavior & aversive outcomes
    • Saversive: B  no effect
  • Global expectancy develops
    • ineffectiveness of behavior
    • Failure to respond even when it may be successful ~
experimental procedure
Master rat

Yoked rat

Experimental procedure
  • Master
    • response can terminate shock
  • Yoked
    • shocked w/ master
    • no control over shock ~
give all avoidance training
Give all avoidance training
  • Transfer all to shuttlebox training
    • Standard escape / avoidance task
  • Will they learn to escape?
    • Master?
    • Yoked? ~
master vs yoked
Master vs Yoked
  • Difference in escape learning, but
  • Both shocked
    • Same number
    • Same intensity
    • Same duration
  • How do they differ?
    • Control of shock ~
conclusions
Uncontrollable

Aversive Events

LearnedHelplessness

Conclusions
  • Yoked rat develops expectation
    • no response will terminate shock
    • generalizes to other situations
  • Global expectancy of ineffectiveness ~
stress induced analgesia
Stress-induced Analgesia
  • Decrease in pain sensitivity
    • Occurs in rats in uncontrollable circumstances
  • Use same rats from learned helplessness
    • Test for analgesia
    • Tail Flick Test ~
results
Results
  • Master  no analgesia
    • stress is controllable
  • Yoked rat  analgesic
    • stress is uncontrollable
  • Less sensitive to pain
    • May stay in contact with painful stimulus longer
    • Injury more likely ~
kids math problems
Kids & Math Problems
  • Dweck & Rapucci (1973)
    • 5th graders given series of math problems
  • Give easy problems
    • performance good
  • Give unsolvable problems
  • Give easy again
    • difficulty doing easy problems ~
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