Paraprofessional Behavior Module Arkansas Department of Education Special Education Unit
Goals for this module • Paraprofessionals will have a basic understanding of what it means to function as part of a behavior team. • Paraprofessionals will have a basic understanding of how to assist the supervising teacher in promoting and responding to student behaviors.
Goals 3. Paraprofessionals will understand the importance of collecting and using data to support behavior change in students
Competencies: Paraprofessionals will display… • 1. A basic understanding of the purpose of behavior programs and the philosophical basis underlying the selection of the strategies and techniques that the supervising teacher may employ. • 2. An understanding of their role and the role of the supervising teacher in responding to student behavior and in the implementation of behavior support plans.
Competencies: (Continued) Paraprofessionals will display… • 3. An understanding of the variables that may contribute to student misbehavior. • 4. The ability to identify the ABCs (antecedents-behaviors-consequences) of behavior and understand the process and importance of using this data to facilitate behavior change.
Competencies: (Continued) Paraprofessionals will display… • 5. The ability to verbalize the importance of being proactive (e.g., teaching an appropriate behavior to replace an inappropriate behavior) over being reactive. • 6. The ability to identify the skills required to assist the supervising teacher in promoting positive behavior in the school environment.
Competencies: (Continued) Paraprofessionals will display… • 7. The ability to identify the skills needed to prevent inappropriate behavior, replace inappropriate behavior with appropriate behaviors, and respond appropriately to escalating behavior. • 8. The ability to observe, record and chart behavior under the direction of the supervising teacher.
Competencies: (Continued) Paraprofessionals will display… • 9. An understanding of the role of confidentiality and how it relates to behavior management and discipline of students with disabilities.
Competency OneA basic understanding of the purpose of behavior programs and the philosophical basis underlying the selection of the strategies and techniques that the supervising teacher may employ.
Our Purpose and Philosophyof Behavior Supports 1. The belief that the overall purposeof any behavior program is to aid the student in learning and displaying those behaviors conducive to learning and functioning in society. 2. The overall goal is to teach and encourage appropriate social behaviors. 3. The underlyingphilosophy is that appropriate behaviors can be taught just as we would teach any other lesson.
Importance of a Common Philosophy • Prevents misunderstandings • Ensures that both the supervising teacher and paraprofessional approach student behavior in a consistent and appropriate manner
Competency TwoParaprofessionals will understand their role and the role of the supervising teacher in responding to student behavior and in the implementing of behavior plans.
Role of supervising teacher • Creating a positive learning environment • Establishing classroom rules and procedures • Determining positive and negative consequences • Writing Behavior plans • Ensuring appropriate implementation of behavior plans • Making major decisions regarding the direction of behavior management
Role of the Paraprofessional • Assisting the supervising teacher in • creating a positive learning environment • observing, recording, and charting behavior • implementing behavior plans • crisis intervention • supervising students’ behavior during free play or class activities • reinforcing appropriate behavior and skills
Role of the Paraprofessional • Demonstrating and/or modeling appropriate behavior • Personal Hygiene • Appropriate conversation and language skills • Manners • Coaching/cueing appropriate behavior
Competency ThreeParaprofessionals will understand variables which contribute to student misbehavior.
Dealing with Student Behavior • Behavior is complex. Behavior does not occur in isolation. • Environmental and intra-student variables contribute to students’ behaviors (both positive and negative).
Environmental VariablesVariables present in the environment which can cause or contribute to the students’ inappropriate behaviors.
Environmental Variables • School/Classroom environmental factors • Supervising teacher/Instructional factors • Curriculum factors • Social factors • Home/community factors
School/Classroom Factors • Unsatisfactory professional development programs for staff. • Inconsistent discipline programs/philosophical differences • Bus ride (length, problems on bus carry over to school, etc.) • Temperature of building/classrooms • School and staff to student ratio • Areas in building that are inadequately supervised
School/Classroom Factors • Rules/expectations in class/building far exceed skills of students to be successful • Insufficient school materials (books, labs, other resources) • Classroom seating arrangements (too close/near to peers, too far from supervising teacher, near window or distractions
Supervising Teacher/ Instructional Variables • Supervising teacher expectations too high/too low for student • Feedback to student not frequent enough • Rates of reinforcement too low for student’s needs
Supervising Teacher/ Instructional Variables • Supervising teacher’s energy, fatigue, or tolerance resulting in higher negative or less frequent feedback and interaction • Insufficient rehearsal time, direct instruction time and guided practice time.
Supervising Teacher/ Instructional Variables • Level of supervision (frequency/rate) too low for student’s needs • Supervising teacher’s teaching style does not take into account student’s various/preferred learning styles.
Curriculum Factors (Knoff 2001) • Curriculum too easy or difficult • Curriculum not relevant to the student’s needs • Curriculum presented too fast or slow for student’s learning rate. • Insufficient opportunity to practice
Curriculum Factors • Length of curriculum presentation too long for attention span of student • Philosophy of curriculum presentation too narrow or broad (e.g. phonics only)
Social Factors The supervising teacher and his or her ability to effectively manage a classroom and create a positive learning environment can contribute to the presence or absence of inappropriate behavior
Social Factors The student’s peer group can contribute in a positive or negative manner. • Do the peers support/reinforce appropriate behavior? • Do the peers exert influence over inappropriate behavior by teasing, taunting, or instigating?
Home/Community Factors • Absence of appropriate levels of parent supervision • Discrepancy in values/expectations between home and school. • Parents academic skills inadequate to help student • Parents unable or unwilling to reinforce school-related academic/behavior strategies in the home
Home/Community Factors • Parent/community difficulties such as substance abuse • Parent unwilling or unable to meet health/nutrition/basic needs of child resulting in school absences, tardiness, and the ability of student to concentrate on school tasks
Intra-child VariablesVariables within the student which influence his or her behavior
Intra-child Variables • Cognitive factors • Physical factors • Emotional factors • Academic Factors • Motivational Factors
Cognitive Factors • Memory skills • Length of attention span • Language • Self control • Absence or presence of prerequisite academic skills
Physical and Health Factors Hearing, motor, vision Speech (articulation, voice) Stimulation or fatigue Side effects of medication Stages of maturation/development Health conditions Sensory problems
Emotional Factors • Emotional conditions • Past/present history of abuse or neglect
Academic Factors • Student’s level of academic functioning. • Link between inappropriate behavior and the difficulty of the task. Inappropriate behavior increases with the difficulty of the instructional task.
Motivational Factors • Major factor in motivation is the ability to predict success. • You are more motivated to attempt a task if you have reason to believe you will be successful.
Competency FourParaprofessionals will be able to identify the components and understand the process and importance of conducting an ABC analysis of behavior.
Have you ever said: • I’ve tried everything! • He needs to be somewhere else. • He comes to school that way. • He just needs a good spanking. • Nothing Works! • He does it all day. • It’s his home.
Have you ever said: • Nothing set him off . • He could do better if he wanted to. • He acts just like his daddy. • What would you expect from his family. • We punish him but it just doesn’t work. • Can’t predict his behavior …There is no reason.
The basis of functional assessment is the acceptance that all behavior is a form of communicationand allbehavior serves a purpose.
The process of identifying what is causing or maintaining behavior is called the ABCs of Behavior.
ABCs of Behavior • Antecedent: What happens just before a problem behavior occurs. Time of day, who is present, during what event/subject/task • Setting events: happen further away in time but still contribute to the problem behavior: Lack of sleep, hunger, medication. • Behavior: What the student does that is observable. Written in concrete terms • Consequences: What typically happens after the behavior occurs. Indicates what maintains the behavior.
ConsequencesBy looking at what occurs as a result of the behavior you are able to make an hypothesis about what is maintaining the behavior or what function is the behavior serving for the student.
Function of BehaviorWhat is the student getting or avoiding when they engage in a specific behavior?
Typical Functions of behavior • Attention: peer attention, adult attention • Escape: get out of an activity or away from other students/staff. • Sensory stimulation-self reinforcing behaviors such as thumb sucking • Access to materials or activities-something tangible the student wants.
Examples • A B C
Situation #1When the supervising teacher gives Joe a math assignment, he begins to get extremely disruptive, causing the supervising teacher to tell him to go stand in the hallway.
Antecedents • What are the antecedents? What happens right before Joe’s behavior?