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Principles of Behavior Modification (PSY 333). Gary L. Cates, Ph.D., NCSP. Chapter 1: Introduction. What is Behavior Modification?. Why is behavior Important?. Many major problems are concerned with behavior. It is more precise than general labels.

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chapter 1 introduction

Chapter 1: Introduction

What is Behavior Modification?

why is behavior important
Why is behavior Important?
  • Many major problems are concerned with behavior.
  • It is more precise than general labels.
  • Conditions are generally a result of behavior. DO NOT CONFUSE THEM!
what is behavior
What is Behavior?
  • Definition: Any glandular, chemical, electrical, or muscular response.
  • Anything a person does 
  • Dead man (or woman) Test
  • Do not confuse with products of behavior: e.g. Reward
talking about behavior
Talking about behavior
  • Operational Definition: Should be specific not general descriptions.

- Free of circular logic: Depression vs. withdrawal

what is behavior modification
What is Behavior Modification?
  • General Definition: Systematic application of learning principles and techniques to assess and improve individuals covert and overt behaviors in order to help them function more fully in society.
characteristics of behavior modification
Characteristics of Behavior Modification
  • Emphasized defining and measuring behavior
  • Treatment focuses greatly on the environment.
  • Methods and rationales can be described precisely.
characteristics of behavior modification1
Characteristics of Behavior Modification
  • Techniques are often applied by individuals in everyday life.

- Applied not theoretical

  • Most techniques are based on research on learning
  • Emphasizes scientific method
  • Accountability is placed on everyone involved.
behavioral assessment
Behavioral Assessment

Definition: Collection and analysis of data to:

a) identify and describe behavior

b) identify possible causes of the behavior

c) guide the selection of an appropriate behavioral treatment

d) evaluate treatment outcome

misconceptions about behavior modification
Misconceptions about Behavior modification
  • Rewards and reinforcement are nothing more than bribes.

2. It is drugs, psychosurgery, ECT

3. It only changes symptoms not underlying problems.

misconceptions about behavior modification1
Misconceptions about Behavior modification

4. Can be applied to simple, but not complex problems

5. Behavior analysts are cold non-empathetic people.

  • Behavior modifiers deal only with observable behavior.
  • Behavior modification is outdated.
severe problems
Severe Problems
  • Development disabilities
  • Schizophrenia
  • Autism
definition
Definition
  • Positive Reinforcer: stimulus or event that when presented immediately following a behavior causes the behavior to increase in frequency.
    • Immediate
    • Contingent
    • Increases behavior: Always!
example getting more i statements
Example: Getting more I statements

Before Behavior After

(No R+) (Response) (R+)

No M&M I Statement M&M

your example
Your Example:

Before Behavior After

(No R+) (Response) (R+)

? ? ?

factors influencing the effectiveness of positive reinforcement
Factors influencing the effectiveness of positive reinforcement

A.   Motivating Operations

-  Are you hungry enough?

- Perhaps your full!

B.    Reinforcer Size

Naked desk dancing anyone?

factors influencing the effectiveness of positive reinforcement1
Factors influencing the effectiveness of positive reinforcement

C.    Reinforcer Immediacy

factors influencing the effectiveness of positive reinforcement2
Factors influencing the effectiveness of positive reinforcement

D.   Instructions: Make use of rules

1.      They speed up learning process if understood.

2.      Can help with delayed reinforcement

3.      R+ with instructions may help rule/instruction following.

factors influencing the effectiveness of positive reinforcement3
Factors influencing the effectiveness of positive reinforcement

E.    Contingent Vs. Non-contingent Reinforcement

Increase “TARGET” responding

F.     Weaning from artificial R+ and changing to natural R+

pitfalls of positive reinforcement
Pitfalls of Positive Reinforcement
  • Unintended Reinforcement- e.g. social, tangible
guidelines for the effective application of positive reinforcement
Guidelines for the effective application of positive reinforcement

1. Select the behavior to be increased

  • Should be specific
  • One that can be controlled naturally
  • Evaluate reinforcer effectiveness prior to treatment 
guidelines for the effective application of positive reinforcement1
Guidelines for the effective application of positive reinforcement

2. Selecting a reinforcer

  • - readily available
  • - presented immediately
  • - Can be used many times without causing satiation.
  • - Requires only brief consumption
  • - Use a menu when possible
guidelines for the effective application of positive reinforcement2
Guidelines for the effective application of positive reinforcement

3. Applying positive reinforcement

- Explain plan before starting

- Reinforce behavior immediately

- Tell person what behavior is being reinforced

guidelines for the effective application of positive reinforcement3
Guidelines for the effective application of positive reinforcement

4. Weaning person from reinforcement program

- Establish high levels of responding

- Look for natural reinforcer

- Plan follow-up assessments

slide39

BEHAVIORAL CONTINGENCY TABLE (DRAFT 1)

Present Stimulus

Remove Stimulus

Behavior Increases

Positive Reinforcement (S+R)

Behavior Decreases

principles of behavior modification

Principles of Behavior Modification

Gary L. Cates, Ph.D., N.C.S.P.

negative reinforcement
Negative Reinforcement
  • Immediate removal (escape) or prevention (avoidance) of an aversive stimulus contingent upon a behavior that increases the probability of that behavior in the future.
  • Remember: Reinforcement of any kind increases behavior!
negative reinforcement escape
Negative Reinforcement: Escape

BeforeBehaviorAfter

Aversive You do something Aversive

Condition Condition

Present Not present

example negative reinforcement escape
Example: Negative Reinforcement (Escape)

BeforeBehaviorAfter

Getting wet Use an Umbrella Not getting wet

from rain from rain

negative reinforcement avoidance
Negative Reinforcement: Avoidance

BeforeBehaviorAfter

Aversive You do Aversive

Condition Something Condition

Will occur Does not occur

your turn
Your Turn

Come up with an example of how your behavior was negatively reinforced through escape and share with your peers.

example negative reinforcement avoidance
Example: Negative Reinforcement (Avoidance)

BeforeBehaviorAfter

You could If You get You do

get wet an Umbrella not get wet

your turn1
Your Turn

Come up with an example of how your behavior was negatively reinforced through avoidance and share with your peers.

major pitfall
Major Pitfall

Sick Social Cycle (Victim’s escape Model)

Before BehaviorAfter

Pos. R+ Baby has Baby cries Baby Gets

no candy candy

Neg. R+ Cry for Mom gives Baby Quits crying

candy Candy

your turn2
Your turn
  • Come up with an example of the sick social cycle model (victims escape model) and share it with your peers.
considerations when using escape and avoidance
Considerations when using Escape and Avoidance

1. Train escape before training avoidance

2. If possible use a warning stimulus (SW)

3. Be aware of side effects: e.g. Aggression

4. Positive reinforcement should be used as well

5. State the rules of the procedures to the person

chapter 6 punishment

Chapter 6: Punishment

Type I (Application)

and

Type II (Removal)

punishment
Punishment

Process of reducing behavior by immediately presenting an aversive condition (or removing a reinforcer) contingent upon a response that results in a decrease in the frequency of that response

Punishment always decreases behavior!

type i punishment adding aversive stimulation
Type I Punishment: Adding Aversive Stimulation

1. Reprimand

  • Spanking

Remember: If it does not decrease behavior it is not punishment.

example type i punishment
Example: Type I Punishment

BeforeBehaviorAfter

No aversive You engage in Aversive condition

Condition target behavior presented.

example type i punishment1
Example: Type I Punishment

BeforeBehaviorAfter

No burn on hand You touch hot stove Burn on hand

your turn3
Your Turn
  • Come up with an example of how your behavior has been punished (application style) and share with your peers.
type ii punishment penalty removing reinforcement
Type II Punishment (Penalty): removing reinforcement

1. Response Cost

  • Time-Out

Remember: It must decrease behavior or it is not punishment!

example type ii punishment penalty
Example: Type II punishment (Penalty)

BeforeBehaviorAfter

You have You do something You loose

Something something

example type ii punishment penalty1
Example: Type II Punishment (Penalty)

BeforeBehaviorAfter

You have $100 You get caught speeding you have no $100

your turn4
Your Turn
  • Come up with an example of how your behavior has been punished (Penalty style) and share with your peers.
major pitfall1
Major Pitfall

Sick Social Cycle (Victim’s punishment Model)

Before BehaviorAfter

Teacher

Need a reader Ask Student Student Cusses

Student

Student Asked No BXXX Don’t read

to Read aloud aloud

guidelines for implementing punishment
Guidelines For implementing Punishment
  • Target Behavior must be operationally defined
  • Choose an alternate response to reinforce
  • Minimize the causes of the undesirable response
  • Use an effective punisher: not paired with R+ and is available
  • Apply: Consistently and Immediately
  • Keep records and have someone else help you monitor!
  • State the Rules to the individual
when should punishment be used
When should punishment be used?
  • The person’s behavior should be a danger to himself or others.
  • Use only after trying reinforcing procedures
  • Social Validity/Informed Consent
  • Reliability of Measurement: Helper/supervisor
  • Do not use punishment as a means to show superiority
general
General
  • Intermittent: Reinforcement occurs once in a while.
  • Continuous: Reinforcement after each response.
  • Resistance to Extinction: The number responses or amount of time before a response extinguishes.
  • √ Intermittent > Continuous
three general schedules
Three General Schedules
  • Ratio Schedules: Based on Number of responses
  • Interval Schedules: Based on Time
  • Duration Schedules: Based on response for specified time period
fixed ratio fr schedules
Fixed Ratio (FR) Schedules
  • Definition: Reinforcement follows a fixed number of responses

General Effect: After a response is reinforced no responding occurs for a period of time then responding occurs at a high, steady rate until the next reinforcer is delivered.

    • If the ratio is large the post reinforcement pause will be long
fr schedule example
FR Schedule example
  • Every 5th behavior
  • Mouse clicking
  • Slot Machine (non-example)
establishing intermittently reinforced behavior
Establishing intermittently reinforced Behavior:
  • Reinforce continuously and slowly thin the schedule as responding stabilizes.
  • Do not strain the ratio (i.e., thin to quickly).
variable ratio vr schedules
Variable-Ratio (VR) Schedules
  • Definition: Reinforcer follows after a variable number of responses.
  • General Effect: High rate of responding with no post reinforcement pause.
example vr schedules
Example VR Schedules
  • Slot Machines (True Example)
fixed interval fi schedules
Fixed Interval (FI) Schedules

Definition: A reinforcer is contingent on the first response, after a fixed interval of time since the last opportunity for reinforcement.

Result: A fixed interval often produces a scallop and a post reinforcement pause.

example fixed interval schedule
Example: Fixed Interval Schedule
  • Slot Machine (non-example)
  • Checking the mail
non contingent reinforcement
Non-contingent reinforcement
  • Definition: Delivery of a reinforcer independent of a response after the passage of a fixed period of time.
  • Result: Whatever behavior was emitted prior to R+ is likely to be emitted more often.
superstitious behavior
Superstitious Behavior
  • Behavior that is maintained by a contiguous relationship between known reinforcement and a response. Organism behaves as behavior causes response but really doesn’t.
  • Examples: Slot Machines, Athletic Competitions, Performances
variable interval schedules of reinforcement
Variable Interval Schedules of Reinforcement
  • Definition: A reinforcer is delivered contingent upon the first response after a variable interval of time since the last opportunity for reinforcement.
example of vi scheuldes
Example of VI Scheuldes
  • Slot Machines (non-example)
  • Pop Quizzes
limited hold
Limited Hold
  • Reinforcement made available for only a specified period of time.
  • While supplies last, before time runs out, expiration dates
fixed duration schedules of reinforcement fd
Fixed Duration Schedules of Reinforcement (FD)
  • Must engage in a behavior for fixed period of time to earn reinforcement.
  • Result: Long periods of continuous behavior with PRP
example fixed duration schedule
Example: Fixed Duration Schedule
  • Work for one hour and you earn 20 bucks
variable duration schedules of reinforcement vd
Variable Duration Schedules of Reinforcement (VD)
  • Must engage in a behavior for a variable (avg.) period of time to earn reinforcement
  • Result: Long periods of continuous behavior with minimal PRP
example variable duration schedule
Example: Variable Duration Schedule
  • Getting heat through friction
  • How long does it have to be?