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Behavior Based Safety
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uriah-hale
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Behavior Based Safety

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  1. Behavior Based Safety

  2. Objectives • The benefits of behavior-based systems. • The basic principles of how to motivate safe behavior. • A company’s readiness for behavior-based safety. • Compare and contrast the different behavior-based systems on the market today.

  3. Why Safety Programs Do Not Work: • Safety is a priority, not a value! • Safety is not managed in the same manner as production, quality, and cost issues! • Safety is not driven through continuous improvement!

  4. “Fallacies or Realities” in Safety Fables? • Conditions cause accidents! • Enforcing rules improves safety! • Safety professionals can keep workers safe! • Low accident rates indicate safety programs are working well! • Investigating to find the root cause of accidents will improve safety! • Awareness training improves safety! • Rewards improve safety!

  5. Core Elements in Successful Safety Programs • A culture that says “safety” is important around here! • A tight accountability system!

  6. Behavior Based Safety: What Is It? • An excellent tool for collecting data on the quality of a company’s safety management system • A scientific way to understand why people behave the way they do when it comes to safety • Properly applied, an effective next step towards creating a truly pro-active safety culture where loss prevention is a core value • Conceptually easy to understand but often hard to implement and sustain

  7. Behavior Based Safety: What It Is Not! • Only about observation and feedback • Concerned only about the behaviors of line employees • A substitution for traditional risk management techniques • About cheating & manipulating people & aversive control • A focus on incident rates without a focus on behavior • A process that does not need employee involvement

  8. Obstacles To Success: • Poorly Maintained Facilities • Top-down Management Practices • Poor Planning/Execution • Inadequate Training

  9. Keys to Success: • Meaningful Employee Empowerment • Designing a Well Planned and Supported BBS Process • Managing BBS Process with Integrity

  10. Turn & Talk • What kinds of injuries and accidents are common at your workplace?

  11. What percentage of these accidents are a result of: • Unsafe conditions, OSHA violations, dangerous equipment? _____% • Unsafe actions, at-risk behaviors, poor decisions? _____%

  12. What percentage of these accidents are a result of: • Unsafe conditions, OSHA violations, dangerous equipment? 6% • Unsafe actions, at-risk behaviors, poor decisions? 94%

  13. Therefore, compliance is necessarybut not sufficient for great safety.Safety is about people, and behavior is the challenge.

  14. Fatality Major Minor Injury Property Damage Near Miss (hit) At-risk Behaviors

  15. Traditional Safety Safety Training Slogans Regulations Reprimands Policies Fewer Accidents Contests & Awards Safety Meetings Committees & Councils

  16. Safety Activities Fewer Accidents Behavior Based Safety Fewer at-risk Behaviors

  17. What Behavior-based is... Safe People vs Safe Places Injuries Equal Management Errors Behavior Management Measure Behaviors vs Results Observation & Feedback Positive Reinforcement

  18. Organizational Performance Model Systems Behaviors Great Performance Climate

  19. Systems • Accountability • Communication • Decision Making • Measurement • Orientation • Training • Employment • Auditing

  20. Honesty and Integrity Ask for help without taking responsibility Recognition Observation and feedback Trust Listen with empathy Behaviors

  21. Climate Variables • Confidence/trust • Interest in people • Understanding problems • Training/helping • Teaching to solve problems • Much information • Approachability • Recognition - Rensis Likert

  22. Turn & Talk • What is the primary purpose of a supervisor? • What is the most effective way to motivate people?

  23. Human Behavior is a function of : ðActivators (what needs to be done) ðCompetencies (how it needs to be done) ðConsequences (what happens if it is done)

  24. Human behavior is both: ð Observable ð Measurable therefore Behavior can be managed !

  25. AttitudesAre inside a person’s head -therefore they are notobservable or measurable however Attitudes can be changed by changing behaviors

  26. ABC Model Antecedents (trigger behavior) Behavior (human performance) Consequences (either reinforce or punish behavior)

  27. Definitions: Activators: A person, place, thing or event that happens before a behavior takes place that encourages you to perform that behavior. Activators only set the stage for behavior or performance - they don’t controlit.

  28. Some examples of activators

  29. Definitions: Behavior:Any directly measurable thing that a person does, including speaking, acting, and performing physical functions.

  30. Some examples of behavior:

  31. Definitions: Consequences: Events that follow behaviors. Consequences increase or decrease the probability that the behaviors will occur again in the future. If you don’t send in that payment we’ll take you to court Oh please let it be Bob!

  32. Behavioral Model B = f (c) Antecedents Behaviors Consequences

  33. Some example of Consequences:

  34. Consequences - How would you view them? Sunbathing Aggressive Drivers

  35. Only 4 Types of Consequences: • Positive Reinforcement (R+) ("Do this & you'll be rewarded") • Negative Reinforcement (R-) ("Do this or else you'll be penalized") Punishment (P) ("If you do this, you'll be penalized") • Extinction (E) ("Ignore it and it'll go away") Behavior

  36. Consequences Influence Behaviors Based Upon Individual Perceptions of: Magnitude - large or small { • Significance- positive or negative Impact - personal or other Timing - immediate or future Consistency - certain or uncertain

  37. Consequences need to be ... Soon vs Delayed Certain vs Uncertain Personal vs Organizational Positive vs Negative

  38. Both Positive (R+) & Negative (R-) Reinforcement Can Increase Behavior R+: any consequence that follows a behavior and increases the probability that the behavior will occur more often in the future - You get something you want R- : a consequence that strengthens any behavior that reduces or terminates the behavior - You escape or avoid something you don’t want

  39. Good safety suggestion Joe! Keep bringing ‘em up! R+ One more report like this and you’re outa here!! R-

  40. R+ Performance The effects of positive reinforcement Time

  41. P Performance The effects of punishment Time

  42. Why is one sign often ignored, the other one often followed?

  43. The Behavior Based Safety Challenge: To create conditions that encourage people to collaborate because they want to not because they have to Let’s do it!!

  44. Motivation Model Ability Motivation Performance

  45. Motivation Model Selection - Can they do it Training - Do they know how Ability Motivation Performance

  46. Motivation Model Selection - Can they do it Job Climate - Boss & Peer relationships, Work environment Training - Do they know how Ability Motivation Performance

  47. Motivation Model Selection - Can they do it Job Climate - Boss & Peer relationships, Work environment Training - Do they know how Ability The Job Itself - Any fun, challenge • Job Motivational Factors • Achievement, Promotion, Recognition, Responsibility Motivation Performance

  48. Motivation Model Selection - Can they do it Job Climate - Boss & Peer relationships, Work environment Training - Do they know how Ability The Job Itself - Any fun, challenge • Job Motivational Factors • Achievement, Promotion, Recognition, Responsibility Motivation Performance Peer Groups - Norms, Pressures Union - Norms, Pressures

  49. Accident Causation DOTS Model

  50. D O T S Causation Model Logical decision in his/her situation Decision to err Perceived low probability Injury or loss Acc or incid’t Human Error Overload or mismatch Capacity with Load in a State Incomp’ble displays/ Controls or job design Systems Failure Traps Workstat’n design