Vineland II Adaptive Behavior Scales By: Julia Guzman and Caitlin Tully
What is adaptive behavior? “Adaptive behavior is the performance of daily activities required for personal and social sufficiency.” It is age-related, defined by the expectations or standards of other people, and defined by typical performance, not ability. Balla, Cicchetti, Sparrow1985
Overview The test was created to measure adaptive behavior. It supports the diagnosis of intellectual and developmental disabilities. It can be a component to the evaluation process of individuals with developmental delays, autism spectrum disorders, and any other impairments that may impact the individual’s personal and social living skills. They are five domains covered in this assessment. Each domain includes two to three sub domains. Name: Vineland II: Adaptive Behavior Scales Author(s): Sara S. Sparrow, Domenic V. Cicchetti & David A. Balla Publisher(s): AGS / Pearson Latest Edition: 2005 Age Range: Birth to 90 years old Time: 20-60 Minutes Cost: $398.35 (starter kit)
Why Administer the Vineland? • You have questions regarding individuals abilities to perform in daily personal and social situations • You need to evaluate the type of care and extent of care needed for an adult who has a disability/diagnosis • You are evaluating young children or disabled adults in social/self-help skills in order to write a progress report • You are monitoring progress and program planning to the needs of individuals • You want to evaluate decline in elderly adults • You want to measure adaptive abilities of individuals with: Intellectual Developmental Disabilities, Autism Spectrum Disorders, ADHD, Post-traumatic brain injury, hearing impairment, Dementia/Alzheimer's
Which Forms to Use? Survey Interview Form provides a targeted assessment of adaptive behavior. You administer the survey to a parent or caregiver using a semi-structured interview format. This approach gathers more in-depth information with its open-ended questions and promotes rapport between the interviewer and respondent. Parent/Caregiver Rating Form covers the same content as the Survey Interview, but uses a rating scale format. This alternative approach works when time or access is limited. The Parent/Caregiver Rating Form is also a valuable tool for progress monitoring. Use the Survey Interview Form on the initial assessment and track progress by using the Parent/Caregiver Rating Form. Expanded Interview Form provides an in-depth alternative to the Survey Interview form with more items. Particularly suitable for ages 0 to 5 or to help facilitate detailed program planning for low functioning individuals. Teacher Rating Form assesses adaptive behavior for students in school, preschool, or a structured day care setting. This form uses a questionnaire format completed by the teacher or day care provider. The Teacher Rating Form contains the same Domains as the Survey Forms but covers content that a teacher would observe in a classroom setting. Targeted and comprehensive, the form lets you evaluate a student's functioning in a single domain or any combination of domains. An adaptive Behavior Composite score is provided when all four domains are administered
Scoring Survey Form: Basal: seven consecutive items scored (2) Ceiling: seven consecutive items scored (0) Expanded Form: Basal: In each sub domain, two consecutive clusters with all items scored (2) Questionnaire Edition: A survey, where the teacher rates each domain and it’s corresponding behavior 2-0
Validity • Domains in which the Vineland showed Validity • Groupdifferences: Difference among sex, socioeconomic status, ethnic and group membership were found to small • Test Structure: The inter correlations of sub domain, domain, and Adaptive Behavior Composite scores were analyzed. The authors indicate that “generally correlations between sub domains are moderate in size, and are higher at younger ages than older ages. • Clinical Groups: Another important facet of this adaptive functioning measure is to demonstrate how the information provided by the measure assists in diagnostic decisions. • Relationship to other measures: • Concurrent validity is determined by demonstrating the relationship between the scale and other scales that measure the same construct. • The overall Adaptive Behavior Composite on the Vineland-II and the General Adaptive Composite from the ABAS-II correlated at .70. • Discriminate validity demonstrates that a measure is not related to tools that measure different constructs. For example, it does correlate to an assessment like the WAIT.
Critiques The content of the Vineland-II is supported from several important sources including American Association on Cognitively delayed (2002), American Psychological Association (1996), and the National Academy of Sciences, as well as from the previous version of the Vineland (Vineland ABS). http://www.cup.ualberta.ca/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Vineland-II-tool-review.pdf There is a critical need to establish cost effective ways to monitor developmental progress of children at risk for developmental disabilities. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) is a well-known functional measure used for both clinical and research purposes. The objective of this study was to examine the equivalence reliability of the VABS using two different administration methods; in-person versus telephone interviews. Fifty children with or at-risk for developmental disability were tested (mean age of 77.5 +/- 18.5 months) using both interview formats. Correlations between in-person and telephone interview scores were extremely high for all sub domains including Communication (ICC = 0.99), Daily Living Skills (ICC = 0.98), Socialization (ICC = 0.96), Motor (ICC = 0.98) as well as the Adaptive Behavior Composite score (ICC = 0.99). The ability to collect reliable information on a child's developmental progress using a telephone interview format is critical, given current service delivery constraints. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16938828
Overall Benefits Disadvantages • Useful for diagnosis, qualification for special programs, progress reporting, program and treatment planning, and research. • Easy to administer, administration instructions do not vary across groups. • The test results demonstrate distinct profiles for different characteristics that apply to specific diagnosis • Parents and caregivers receive a score report form that thoroughly explains the process and scores. • The language is focused on children even though the age range is from birth to 90 years old. • Because of how the latest version was adapted to reflect societal norms, and the sample was taken to represent a valid sample of Americans from 2001, the test may be bias against international students/adults being assessed. • The assessment does not correlate with any academic achievement assessments like the WIAT or WRAT.
Resources http://www.cup.ualberta.ca/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Vineland-II-tool-review.pdf http://psychcorp.pearsonassessments.com/HAIWEB/Cultures/en-us/Productdetail.htm?Pid=Vineland-II Sara S. Sparrow, D. V. (2005). Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition . AGS.