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Learning

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  1. Learning The Ins and Outs of Learning Behavior

  2. Psychology Weekly Topics • Monday • Behaviorism Intro • Tuesday • Classical Conditioning Basics • Wednesday • Classical Conditioning • Class demonstration • Thursdays • Classical Conditioning in detail

  3. Just for Kicks

  4. Think About it “The interpretation of dreams is the royal road to a knowledge of the unconscious activities of the mind while the royal road to understanding human behavior lies within the unconscious mind itself.” -- Sigmund Freud • "Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select--doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief, and, yes, even beggarman and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors. • --John Watson

  5. Learning: Classical and Operant ConditioningChapter 6 Honors PSYCHOLOGY Tinley Park High School Mr. Reiser

  6. Before Behaviorism Introspection- (1879) Not very Scientific ? Psychoanalysis- (1895) Not Scientific at all ?

  7. A New Way of Thinking Psychology finally discovers a way to measure behavior scientifically "Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It" John B. Watson 1913 7 main assumptions of Behaviorism that set it apart from other psychologies

  8. Behaviorism Assumptions • Psychology should be seen as a science.  • Theories need to be supported by empirical data obtained through careful and controlled observation and measurement of behavior • Behaviorism is primarily concerned with observable behavior • as opposed to internal events like thinking and emotion.  Observable (i.e. external) behavior can be objectively and scientifically measured.

  9. Behaviorism Assumptions • Behaviorism is Naturalistic. • The material world is the ultimate reality, and everything can be explained in terms of natural laws. • Man has no soul and no mind, only a brain that responds to external stimuli. • Our behavior is the product of our conditioning. • thoughts, feelings, intentions, and mental processes do not determine what we do. • We are biological machines and do not consciously act

  10. Behaviorism Assumptions • We are not responsible for our actions • “If we are mere machines, without minds or souls, reacting to stimuli and operating on our environment to attain certain ends, then anything we do is the responsibility of those who taught us) • No Free will • When born our mind is 'tabula rasa' (a blank slate). • ALL behavior must be learned • Behaviorism is manipulative. • It seeks not merely to understand human behavior, but to predict and control it.

  11. Learning • Relatively permanent change in knowledge or behavior resulting from experience • 4 types of learning • Habituation • Classical conditioning • Operant conditioning • Observational learning (Social Cognitive) • They all operate under the same principle – learning by association

  12. Learning’s Effects on Behavior • In humans, learning has a much larger influence on behavior than instincts. • Learning represents an evolutionary advance over instincts.

  13. Conditioning - making an association between two events by repeatedly having them occur close together in time. Two Types Operant Classical

  14. The ABCs of Learning • Understanding learning is like understanding the ABC’s • First, their has to be an Antecedent • Something to set the behavior off • Then there is a Behavior (response) • The response to the antecedent • Finally the Consequence • The reinforcement or punishment • Paying close attention to what happens after the consequence is key to understanding how we learn

  15. Psychology Exercise

  16. Psychology Exercise Anger Joy Hate Desire Fear

  17. Types of Learning SIMPLE AND COMPLEX LEARNING

  18. Psychology today • Today • A story to remember (high school love??) • Classical conditioning • Pavlov’s dogs • A sweet “A” youtube clip • The basics • John Watson • Little Albert- A sweet “A” youtube clip

  19. Learning • Relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience • 4 types of learning • Habituation • Classical conditioning • Operant conditioning • Observational learning (Social Cognitive) • They all operate under the same principle – learning by association

  20. Habituation • Tendency to become familiar with a stimulus merely as a result of repeated exposure • Orienting reflex • Eyes widen, eyebrows rise, muscles tighten, heart beats faster, brain-waves indicate heightened physiological arousal • Effect weakens with continued presentation of stimulus – we habituate • Primitive form of learning • Found in all organisms • Decreases the power of reward to motivate

  21. Simple Learning • Habituation: Learning not to respond to the repeated presentation of a stimulus. • Ex-Emergency sirens in the city How often do you look when a car alarm goes off?

  22. Complex Learning • Behavioral Learning: Forms of learning, such as classical and operant conditioning which can be described in terms of stimuli and responses. • Classical conditioning is more simple learning, operant conditioning is more complex learning.

  23. Classical Conditioning Innate reflexes used against us

  24. It’s Story time from Mr. Reiser! “High School Love?” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CMiVeK5zGz8

  25. Pavlov’s Experiment Watch Pavlov’s Experiment Video Ivan Pavlov

  26. Ivan Pavlov and Classical Conditioning • One of most famous people in the study of learning is Ivan Pavlov. • Originally studying salivation and digestion, Pavlov stumbled upon classical conditioning while he was experimenting on his dog. • Classical Conditioning: A form of learning in which a previously neutral stimulus (stimuli w/o reflex provoking power) acquires the power to elicit the same innate reflex produced by another stimulus.

  27. Components of Conditioning • There are 5 main components of conditioning. Classical Conditioning always involves these parts. They are: • Neutral Stimulus • Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) • Unconditioned Response (UCR) • Conditioned Stimulus (CS) • Conditioned Response (CR)

  28. Pavlov’s Findings Explained • Pavlov discovered that a neutral stimulus, when paired with a natural reflex-producing stimulus, will begin to produce a learned response, even when it is presented by itself. • Neutral Stimulus: Any stimulus that produces no conditioned response prior to learning.

  29. Pavlov’s Experiment

  30. Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) • UCS • A stimulus that automatically-without conditioning or learning- provokes a reflexive response. • In Pavlov’s experiment, food was used as the UCS because it produced a salivation reflex. • Classical conditioning cannot happen without UCS. The only behaviors that can be classically conditioned are those that are produced by unconditioned stimulus.

  31. Unconditioned Response (UCR) • UCR • A response resulting from an unconditioned stimulus without prior learning. • In Pavlov’s experiment, the UCR was the dog salivating when its tongue touched food. • Realize that the UCS-UCR connection involves no learning or acquisition.

  32. Some Real World Examples Unconditioned Stimuli (natural) Unconditioned Responses (natural) • Loud Noises • Physical/Emotional Abuse • Food • Fake a physical attack • Being startled • Pain (physical/emotional) • Hunger • Innate Reflexes (flinching/jerking/etc…) In Classical Conditioning, the goal is to get the unnatural to become natural

  33. From Unconditioned to Conditioned • During acquisition, a neutral stimulus is paired with the unconditioned stimulus. • After several trials the neutral stimulus will gradually begin to elicit the same response as the UCS. • Acquisition • The learning stage during which a conditioned response comes to be elicited by the conditioned stimulus. =

  34. Conditioned Stimulus • A CS is the originally neutral stimulus that gains the power to cause the response. • In Pavlov’s experiment, the bell/tone began to produce the same response that the food once did.

  35. Conditioned Response • A CR is a response elicited by a previously neutral stimulus that has become associated with the unconditioned stimulus. • Although the response to the CS is essentially the same as the response originally produced by the UCS, we now call it a conditioned response.

  36. Reiser’s Example I’ll Be (Song) LoveyDovey Feelings Amanda Cain LoveyDovey Feelings I’ll Be (Song)

  37. A “Classic” Example

  38. Watson’s Example White/Furry Things Startled/Fear Loud Noises Startled/Fear White Furry Things

  39. Your Turn

  40. Psychology Today • Classical Conditioning Examples • You try  • CC refresher • Your examples? • Some more key terms • Extinction • Spontaneous recovery • Generalization • Discrimination