Civil Rights. Civil Rights. When Did segergation start?. Civil Rights. Indentured Servants Paid with years of labor for trip to new colonies. Civil Rights. There was no mention of Slavery in the Articles of Confederation. Civil Rights. Constitutional Convention. Civil Rights.
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in fact, was the backbone of the primary industry of the South, and it was accepted as a given that agriculture in the South without slave labor was not possible. nation.
Though slaves were not cheap by any measure, they were cheaper than hiring someone to do the same work. The cultivation of rice, cotton, and tobacco required slaves to work the fields from dawn to dusk.
If the nation did not guarantee the continuation of slavery to the South, it was questioned whether they would form their own nation.
Slavery is seen in the Constitution in a few key places. The first is in the Enumeration Clause, where representatives are apportioned. Each state is given a number of representatives based on its population - in that population, slaves, called "other persons," are counted as three-fifths of a whole person.
This compromise was hard-fought, with Northerners wishing that slaves, legally property, be uncounted, much as mules and horses are uncounted
. Southerners, however, well aware of the high proportion of slaves to the total population in their states, wanted them counted as whole persons despite their legal status. The three-fifths number was a ratio used by the Congress in contemporary legislation and was agreed upon with little debate.
n Article 1, Section 9, Congress is limited, expressly, from prohibiting the "Importation" of slaves, before 1808.
The slave trade was a bone of contention for many, with some who supported slavery abhorring the slave trade.
The 1808 date, a compromise of 20 years, allowed the slave trade to continue, but placed a date-certain on its survival. Congress eventually passed a law outlawing the slave trade that became effective on January 1, 1808.
This compromise was another way the South and the North argued over slavery. The Compromise of 1820 required that all free states and slave states were to be equal.
There was a balance of free and slave states, there were eleven each. The state of Missouri was a slave state and wanted to come to the North as a free state.
The state of Missouri was a slave state and wanted to come to the North as a free state. This would make a big deal because this would make the balance uneven, and if this happened it would not be approved.
That's not the last of hope for the South because the state of Maine also wanted to join the North and become a free state.
The U. S. Congress decided to make Maine a free state because it didn't have any slaves in the state and Missouri did. They had about 10,000 slaves already in it, and the South didn't want to free all those slaves. Missouri then stayed a slave state.
Created using Tom Snyder's Mapmaker's Toolkit, Tom Snyder Productions, 1999.
The compromise would give Texas an amount of ten million dollars to give up it's claims of New Mexico's territory. This would provide much of the needed money to pay for Texas's debts. After planning they decided to make the Texas boundary as it is to day.
The Compromise of 1850 made an even stricter law which was the Fugitive Slave Act, the North just had to stop this act too. The Fugitive Slave Act made the North return the slaves back to their rightful owners that had escaped from the Underground Railroad.
This railroad was for slaves that escaped from their owners and who had gone to the free states of the north or parts of Canada.
The compromise was successful by keeping the nation united. This was only temporary until more further on when the South wanted to separate from the North.
The South wanted to just take the slaves back, but they had to show evidence to the U.S. Congress to prove they were their rightful owners. If they had no evidence the slaves would be free and would not go back and work for the South on the plantations.
Stephen A. Douglas- longed to break the North-South deadlock over westward expansion; proposed the Territory of Nebraska be sliced into two territories, Kansas and Nebraska.
Their status on slavery would be decided by popular sovereignty. Kansas would be presumed to be a slave state, while Nebraska would be a free state.
This Kansas-Nebraska Act ran into the problem of the Missouri Compromise of 1820 which forbade slavery in the proposed Nebraska Territory. Douglas was forced to propose the repealing of the Missouri Compromise. President Pierce fully supported the Kansas-Nebraska
The Kansas-Nebraska act wrecked two compromises: the Compromise of 1820 which the act repealed; and the Compromise of 1850, which northern opinion repealed indirectly.
It included Whigs, Democrats, Free-Soilers, Know-Nothings, and other foes of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. The Southerners hated the Republican Party.
Most of the people who came into Kansas were just westward-moving pioneers. A minority of the people moving to Kansas was financed by groups of northern abolitionists who wanted to see Kansas a free state
The slavery supporters set up their own government at Shawnee Mission. The free-soilers then set up their own government in Topeka, giving the Kansas territory two governments. (Kansas and Nebraska territories were to have popular sovereignty in choosing slavery according to the Kansas-Nebraska Act
Dread Scott, a slave who had lived with his master (residence in Missouri) for 5 years in Illinois and Wisconsin Territory, sued for his freedom on the basis of his long residence on free soil.
The Supreme Court ruled that because a slave was private property, he could be taken into any territory and legally held there in slavery.
The Fifth Amendment forbade Congress from depriving people of their property without the due process of law. The Court went further and stated that the Missouri Compromise wasunconstitutional and that Congress had no power to ban slavery from the territories, no matter what the territorial legislatures themselves wanted.
This victory delighted Southerners, while it infuriated Northerners and supporters of popular sovereignty.
The Emancipation Proclamation called for the freeing of all slaves in Confederate territory, except in locations where the Union had mostly regained control
. Lincoln did not include the freeing of slaves in the Border States for fear that they, too, would secede.
The proclamation fundamentally changed the nature of the war because it effectively removed any chance of a negotiated settlement between the North and the South.
The Emancipation Proclamation caused an outcry to rise from the South who said that Lincoln was trying to stir up slave rebellion.
The Black Codes was a series of laws designed to regulate the affairs of the emancipated slaves. Mississippi passed the first such law in November 1865.
Blacks were forced to continue to work the plantations after their emancipation due to the system of "sharecropping." Plantation owners would rent out pieces of their land to blacks and make the cost of rent higher than the return the land produced.
The renters of the land were bound by contract to continue to work the land until debts were repaid to the plantation owner. Unable to repay the debts, blacks began to "jump" their contracts.
The codes imposed harsh penalties on blacks who "jumped" their labor contracts, some of which usually forced the blacks to work for the same employer for one year. The codes also sought to restore the pre-emancipation system of race relations. The codes forbade a black to serve on a jury or to vote.
The Black Codes mocked the idea of freedom and imposed terrible hardships on the blacks who were struggling against mistreatment and poverty to make their way as free people.
The 13th Amendment to the Constitution declared that "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction."
Formally abolishing slavery in the United States, the 13th Amendment was passed by the Congress on January 31, 1865, and ratified by the states on December 6, 1865.
The 14th Amendment to the Constitution was ratified on July 9, 1868, and granted citizenship to “all persons born or naturalized in the United States,” which included former slaves recently freed
. In addition, it forbids states from denying any person "life, liberty or property, without due process of law" or to "deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.”.
By directly mentioning the role of the states, the 14th Amendment greatly expanded the protection of civil rights to all Americans and is cited in more litigation than any other amendment
The 15th Amendment to the Constitution granted African American men the right to vote by declaring that the "right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude
." Although ratified on February 3, 1870, the promise of the 15th Amendment would not be fully realized for almost a century.
Through the use of poll taxes, literacy tests and other means, Southern states were able to effectively disenfranchise African Americans.
It would take the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote
Segregation was policy of the United States
Separate but equal
Jim Crow Laws
Voting became all white
What would allow segregation to be the law of the land?
Supreme Court Case
Plessy v Ferguson
Segregation was lawful as long as white and black facilities were equal
W E B Du Bois
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Was formed in 1909
Taft believed blacks and whites could never live together and his solution was for blacks to leave country
Wilson did nothing to help blacks
Wilson ordered blacks working for federal government separated
Blacks fought bravely in World War I
Treated better in Europe than at home
Returned home and found nothing changed still a segregated America
Depression hit blacks harder than whites
Up to 60% were unemployed
Roosevelt did more for equality in employment than any other president before him
However no legislation was passed by Roosevelt during his terms as President
World War II
Blacks still did not get the best jobs
Would only work as janitors
Executive order 8802
Ended temporally discrimination in war industries
Military units were still segregated
Black unit of flyers
Never lost a plane they were escorting into battle
Still could not eat or live with white pilots
Truman’s Fair Deal
Proposed legislation for Civil Rights
None were passed by Congress
Truman did speak out against bigotry
Criticize violence against blacks
1948 Truman desegregated the Military
Of blacks contributions to victories in WWI and WWII
1954 seperate but equal still dominated civil rights in United States
1954 four cases were combined into one and sent to Supreme Court
Brown V Topeka Board of Education
Chief Justice Vinson at first was presiding over case
Earl Warren former Governor of California
Postponed case for a year
Knew this was a monumental case
Thurgood Marshall attorney for NAACP
Presented case for plaintiff
Court ruled that separate but equal was unconstitutional
Overturned Plessy v Ferguson
Chief Justice Earl Warren wrote
“ separate but equal has no place in public education separate facilities are inherently unequal”
Decision made but problem was how it was to implemented
Understanding the climate in the south write a short paragraph on what you think the south’s reaction to this decision was and what action may have been taken
“Clear abuse of Federal Power violation of states rights”
Increase of violence against African Americans
Slow or disregarding of implementation of decision in south
Little Rock Arkansas
9 African American students attempted to enter an all white high school
Little Rock Arkansas
City accepted the ruling
Schools planned for desegregation
Governor of state refused to allow them to enter
Sent National Guard to stop the students
Brought news into living rooms
President Eisenhower at first was reluctant to get government involved
Little Rock Changed that idea
Forced Eisenhower to send federal troops and activated National Guard
However the Governor of Arkansas
Ordered National guard to turn away African American students Little Rock 9
Again television was important
Sent the Army to escort students to school
Governor Faubus in response
Closed the High School rather than desegregate
Not many victories in the Eisenhower era for civil rights Brown v. Topeka
Boycott of buses
The significance was the advancement may have been small
First ruling was not enough in Brown v Topeka
In a second ruling Brown II
Ordered integration with
“all deliberate speed”
Segregated bus lines African Americans had to sit in the back of the bus
December 1, 1955
December 1, 1955
Rosa Parks refused to give her seat up
She was arrested
Rosa parks was an officer of the local NAACP
Refused to give up seat to a white man
Arrested became a national cause
She was not the only or the first to challenge segregation
She worked for the NAACP and was a well respected in the community
Turned to Dr. Martin Luther King
African Americans boycotted the bus company
Car pooled and walked to work
26 year old minister was elected chairman of the boycott
Dr. Martin Luther King
Buses were boycotted
Instead car pools walking long distance
381 days long
1956 Supreme Court outlawed bus segregation
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Dr. King Leader
Dr. King called the non violent movement
4 principles of the Civil Rights Movement
1. Teachings of Jesus
Love ones enemy
2. Henry David Thoreau
Refusal to obey an unjust law
3. A. Phillip Randolph
Organization of mass Demonstrations
Lunch Counter sit ins
In early 1960
4 black students
Greensboro North Carolina
Woolworths lunch counter
Sat down knowing they would not be served
Still they sat
4 the first day
23 the next day
66 came the 3rd day
By end of week 1,000 students participated
Hostile crowds surrounded the sit ins
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
Campaigned in busses to
End segregation on all transportation
White mobs gathered and dragged them from busses
Despite violence these protests were successful
The Supreme Court ended segregation in all Public travel accommodations
Four Sources of Mass Movement
1. Black Urbanization
2. Religious Faith
3. Constitutional Rights
4. Media Coverage
He championed James Meredith getting into University of Mississippi
James Meredith today
Governor Ross Barnett refused to obey the order
Kennedy sent in Federal Marshals
1st night 2 died 375 injured during riots
Federal marshals stayed on campus until Meredith graduated
Medgar Evers was shot and killed in his driveway
It took over 30 years for a conviction in the case
Adults would lose their jobs
Fire hoses and dogs were sent out to attack children
Sacrifices were successful
Birmingham began to desegregate
Events in Birmingham forced Kennedy to do something
Proposed a strong Civil Rights Bill
Passed in Johnson Administration
March On Washington
60,000 whites joined in a march to Pass the Civil Rights Bill
Two weeks after I have a dream speech
4 young girls were killed ina firebombing of a church
dynamite was thrown into a Baptist Church killing 4 young girls
Court orders could not alone end the violence
On July 2, 1964 Civil Rights Act of 1964 was signed
Prohibited discrimination because of
Race, religion, national origin, and gender
Rights to enter parks libraries washrooms restaurants theaters and other accommodations
No voting rights yet
College students mostly white 1/3 female
Went to Mississippi to help register voters
3 men disappeared 2 white and one black
Local Klan and local police accused of killings
Convicted after federal investigation
50 mile voting march
At night marchers were beating up
Caught on TV
Response to the violence was more people joined march
Voting Act of 1965
Eliminated the literacy test
Eliminated poll tax
10% negroes voted in 1964 60% in 1968
Violence erupted in Northern cities
Needed economic help
Started as a small time criminal
Spent time in jail
Found the Nation of Islam
Ballots or bullets
Pilgrimage to Mecca
Changed his attitude towards whites
No longer called for separate races
“Well if we don’t use the ballot we going to be forced to use bullets so let us try the ballot”
Split with Black Muslims
February 21, 1965 Malcolm X was assassinated
April 3, 1968
On a Memphis motel balcony
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr was assassinated
James Earl Ray was arrested and charged with the murder
Civil Rights Act of 1968
Ended discrimination in housing
Assassinations in 1960’s
Martin Luther King Jr
Progress made at great expense
4 major leaders killed
War in foreign country
Riots and Civil unrest
Country was at a crossroads