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  1. Warm-up • Copy the definitions: • Communism—An economic and political system in which the government owns or controls almost all the means of production. • Capitalism—An economic system in which businesses, industries, and resources are privately owned.

  2. Warm-up • Explain the difference between communism and capitalism. • STUDY for map test!!!!!!!!

  3. Vietnam and Cambodia: A fight against communism

  4. French Indochina • Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos were all former colonies of France • All had gained independence by 1954 and became three separate countries • Now each country had to choose a government….

  5. Vietnam • After winning independence in 1954, Vietnam was split into two parts: • North Vietnam had a communist government in the capital of Hanoi • South Vietnam had a pro-western government in the capital of Saigon • Couldn’t agree on reunifying as one country 5

  6. Vietnam War • North Vietnam fought to control the South • United States was fearful that all of Asia would fall to communism • Domino Theory-- belief that if one country fell to communism, neighboring countries would follow like falling dominoes • Sent troops to aid South Vietnam in 1964 and remained until 1973

  7. Vietnam War • By the time the US left in 1973... • 2 million Vietnamese had lost their lives • 58,000 Americans died • Extremely unpopular war in America • North Vietnam captured Saigon (southern capital) in 1975 and renamed it Ho Chi Minh City • Vietnam remains a communist country 7

  8. Cambodia: A Timeline 1969- The United States begins bombing Cambodia 1970- Cambodian King Sihanouk, takes refuge in China when he is deposed as the country’s leader. 1975- Khmer Rouge occupies Cambodia, led by Pol Pot. Cambodia is renamed Kampuchea 1979- Vietnam forces invade Cambodia and overthrow Pol Pot regime. 1989- Vietnamese forces withdraw 8

  9. What is Khmer Rouge? • Red Khmer- a name given to the communist ruling party of Cambodia which was active during the 1970s-1990s under the leadership of Pol Pot • Khmer Rouge seized control of the government from 1975-1979 • Result: Mass genocide-- the intentional destruction of a group of people

  10. Khmer Rouge: Year Zero • 2000 years of Cambodian history had now come to an end • According to Khmer Rouge, April 17 was the beginning of Year Zero for the new Cambodia: Democratic Kampuchea (DK). 10

  11. Goals of Khmer Rouge • Wanted a classless society that was based on agriculture • peasant=good • intellectual=bad • Evacuated all the cities as they were tools of capitalism 11

  12. Khmer Rouge • Believed secrecy was best tool for controlling population, all the people were told that the country was run by “the Organization” or Angka • People did not know the communist party existed in Cambodia

  13. Khmer Rouge • New rules were put in place: • religion, money and private ownership were all banned • communications with the outside world eliminated • family relationships dismantled (in some cases, the kids were spying on their parents)

  14. Life Under Khmer Rouge • The people worked in the fields for 12 hours a day without rest or food • Many lacked experience in manual labor and became ill and died 14

  15. Life Under Khmer Rouge Those people who survived but were not well enough to work often vanished: after being taken away to a distant field or forest, they would be forced to dig their own graves before Khmer Rouge soldiers would bludgeon them on the back of the head with a shovel or hoe. It didn't matter whether the blow killed them or not; either way the victims were buried on the spot and left to die a suffocating death.

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  17. Life Under Khmer Rouge • If you spoke French, you would die. If you were educated, you would die. If you wore glasses, you would die. If you practiced Buddhism, you would die. • Looking for extra food was a capital offense • Associating with a relative without permission could get you killed

  18. Life Under Khmer Rouge • Life continued this way for four years until Vietnam invaded • It is estimated that 2 million people died during Khmer Rouge’s reign as a result of starvation, exhaustion, torture or execution

  19. Cambodia Today • Kingdom of Cambodia • Constitutional monarchy • Population is about 11 million • Mostly rural society: 84% • One of the poorest countries in the world • Two-thirds of population have no access to clean drinking water • Over 150,000 Cambodian refugees in the United States

  20. Agriculture is made difficult by the presence of six million land mines scattered throughout the countryside. These painful reminders of Cambodia’s past still injure or kill up to 90 people a month. More than 35,000 Cambodians are amputees as a result of land mine injuries. Some people are simply unaware of their country’s history, and some are simply in denial.