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Expansion and the Age of Jackson

Expansion and the Age of Jackson

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Expansion and the Age of Jackson

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  1. Expansion and the Age of Jackson

  2. “The Era of Good Feelings” Begins • Called this because of lack of political strife in country (only party is DR) • Emphasis on national pride and building the nations infrastructure

  3. James Monroe • Elected in 1817 - 1825 • Democrat Republican • Favored sending freed slaves back to Africa • Liberia’s capital Monrovia is named after him

  4. Henry Clay • Politician from Kentucky • The American System – raise tariffs to protect US businesses and build infrastructure (roads, canals etc.) • He supported the National Bank

  5. Florida • In 1810 the panhandle of Florida declares its independence from Spain • James Madison annexes the territory to the United States

  6. Florida Continued • Andrew Jackson invades Florida in 1814, he was fighting Native Americans but also attacked the Spanish • Adams-Onis Treaty – 1819, Spain cedes all of Florida to the US, the western border of Louisiana Purchase is decided

  7. The Missouri Compromise • Signed into Law in 1820 • Issue was balancing voting power between slave and free states in the Senate • Henry Clay is given credit for the compromise

  8. Maine enters as a Free State • Missouri enters as a Slave State • No Slavery north of the 36-30 parallel line • Monroe favored Self-Determination

  9. The Monroe Doctrine • Document declares that the America’s (North and South America) were off limits for future European colonization • South America is in the United States “Sphere of Influence”

  10. Initially the US had no way to enforce the doctrine • The British Navy enforced the doctrine for the US because the British were protecting their trade with the new nations forming in South America

  11. The Election of 1824 • Known as the “Battle of the Favorite Sons” • 4 different Democrat-Republicans run for the presidency

  12. Andrew Jackson – Senator from Tennessee • Henry Clay – Speaker of the House (Kentucky) • William H. Crawford – Secretary of the Treasury • John Quincy Adams – Secretary of State

  13. Election Results

  14. The Corrupt Bargain • Andrew Jackson wins the popular vote but not a majority in the electoral college

  15. House of Reps votes were Clay uses his influence as speaker to get JQ Adams elected • Clay becomes Secretary of State for JQ Adams • Was this fair?

  16. John Quincy Adams • Elected in a “Corrupt Bargain” • Wanted to focus on the infrastructure of America, but nothing major was accomplished • He did not participate in the patronage system.

  17. The Age of Jackson Begins • After the Election of 1824, Andrew Jacksons followers prevent J.Q. Adams from having an efficient presidency • Why would they do that?

  18. Election of 1828 • J.Q. Adams vs. Andrew Jackson • Jackson wins • Both campaigns participate in mudslinging • The Democrat-Republican party splits • Jacksons followers = Democrats • Henry Clays followers = Whigs

  19. Election of 1828

  20. Who are the Whigs? • Whig party favored Congress having more power than the President • The name was chosen to honor American revolutionaries “Whigs” who stood up against Tyranny • They have 2 members elected President

  21. Age of the Common Man • Jackson was portrayed as a “common man” • Jackson was a wealthy land owner • White males no longer had to own land to be able to vote

  22. Spoils System – 10% of federal employees fired • President can appoint people to federal positions

  23. Bank of the US • The charter for the Bank of the US was expiring • Jackson does not like the bank, so he veto's the renewal

  24. States Rights Issues • Tariff of Abomination – 1828 • South forced to buy expensive Northern goods • Southern States lose $$$ • John Calhoun (from SC) was opposed to it • Doctrine of Nullification • Written by Calhoun • If 13 states agree they can nullify a federal law

  25. Native Americans • Jackson tries to assimilate them • Indians would not give up their culture • Differences could not be resolved • Jacksons solution was to move them • Removal Act of 1830 • Forced Indians west of the Mississippi River • Cherokee Indians file lawsuit

  26. Trail of Tears • 1838 – 20,000 Cherokee Indians living in south • Ordered to be removed and travel 800 miles on foot • ¼ die on the trip west, where they receive inferior land

  27. Panic of 1837 • States stopped accepting paper $$$ • This was due to Jacksons “pet banks” failing • Many people head west to get a fresh start

  28. Transportation • 1825 – Erie Canal Finished (connected the Hudson River to the Great Lakes) • Steamboats were used for transportation on major rivers • Trains –the Tom Thumb is the first successful steam train in the US, it loses a race to a horse in 1830

  29. James K. Polk • Elected in 1844 • Favored adding California as a state and claiming all of the Oregon Territory • Slogan “Fifty-four forty or fight” • Treaty with GB in 1846 sets border at 49th parallel.

  30. Moving West • Manifest Destiny – a popular belief that God intended the United States to expand coast to coast. • Abundance of land was greatest attraction

  31. New Markets • Ranching, Farming • Fur Trade, Gold • Merchants followed the farmers • Levi Strauss, invents blue jeans for miners • Mormons • Move west for religious freedom in 1846

  32. Texas • 1821, Mexico gains independence from Spain • Settlers move to Texas territory b/c they are given land grants • Stephen Austin establishes a colony of Americans living in Northern Texas / Mexico and by 1835 there are 30,000 people in colony

  33. Settlers had to follow Mexican laws including: • No Slavery • 1835 Mexico strips Texas of its right to self-govern • 1836 – The Alamo: “Remember the Alamo” was rallying cry after the defeat

  34. Texas War For Indep. Cont. • Texan rebels capture Santa Anna and force Mexicans to sign a treaty recognizing the Republic of Texas in 1836 • Republic of Texas is its own country until its annexed by the USA in 1846 – becoming the 28th state – this leads to the Mexican War in 1848 • Mexican govt. did not recognize Republic of Texas independence

  35. Trails West • Santa Fe Trail – 780 mile trip to Southwest • Oregon Trail – 2000 mile trip to Pacific Northwest • Both trails started in Independence, Missouri

  36. Infrastructure • California, Oregon, Washington would rapidly become states • This will force the US to focus on developing infrastructure • Pony Express • Telegraph Lines • Railroads

  37. Oregon Territory • Boundary dispute between the US and Canada (GB) over the northern border. • “Fifty Four Forty or Fight” became a slogan for Americans who wanted to annex all of Oregon • Compromise occurred and the border between the US and Canada was set at the 49th Parallel

  38. California • Gold was discovered in 1849 • 80,000 people from around the world came to US after California Gold • 1849 California outlaws slavery and applies for statehood

  39. Mexican-American War • US annexes the Republic of Texas in 1845 • US wants Rio Grande River as border, Mexico does not agree

  40. Causes 1. US desire for more land 2. Texas Independence 3. Border dispute – Pres. Polk sends forces to Rio Grande

  41. Effects 1. Land acquired 2. Mexico reduced to half its original size 3. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo – - Rio Grande border - ceded NM and CA - paid for Mexican Cession (CA, NV, NM, UT, AZ) • Gadsden Purchase, 1853 border of lower 48