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MOTIVATION. 2013. How we motivate ourselves to take action is one of the keys to long-term success. (Canfield, 2005; Krauss, 2002; Smith, 2004). Motivation defined. m otive : a stimulus that moves a person to behave in ways designed to accomplish a goal

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How we motivate ourselves to take action is one of the keys to long-term success. (Canfield, 2005; Krauss, 2002; Smith, 2004)

Motivation defined
Motivation defined to long-term success.

  • motive: a stimulus that moves a person to behave in ways designed to accomplish a goal

  • motivation: an inner state that energizes behavior toward a goal

What motivates you? to long-term success.

Theories of motivation
THEORIES to long-term success. OF MOTIVATION

  • Theories of motivation focus either on internal or external influences on our behavior.

  • Biological Theories

    • Drive-reduction theory

    • Instinct theory

    • Arousal theory – Yerkes-Dodson Law

  • Behavioral Theory

    • Incentive Theory

  • Humanistic Theory

    • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs


  • Need to long-term success. : a condition in which we require something we don’t have

    • Biological: water, food, sleep

    • Psychological: self-esteem, achievement, social approval

      NEEDS give rise to DRIVES

      DRIVES: forces that motivate us to act



biological need for food

hunger = drive

Theories of motivation focus on either INTERNAL or EXTERNAL influences on behavior

Internal influences


External influences



Cultural expectations

Drive reduction theory
Drive-reduction theory influences on behavior

  • Our behavior is motivated by needs

  • Needs can by biological & psychological

  • Needs give rise to drives: forces that motivate us to act

  • We experience a drive based on a need unpleasant tension & we learn to do what we need to reduce that tension.

DRIVE – REDUCTION THEORY influences on behavior

Our bodies seek homeostasis – an balanced internal state

(reduced tension caused by needs)



-An increase in body temperature causes physiological response


-Hunger drive causes you to get a snack.

Applies to many biological drives but others??

Instinct theory
INSTINCT THEORY influences on behavior

Nesting in birds

instinct: an unlearned, inherited fixed pattern of behavior

theory proposed much of human behavior is controlled by a variety of instincts

Dogs shaking off

Crying & sucking reflex in babies

Sea turtles to sea after hatching

Instinct theory applied shortcomings
Instinct theory influences on behaviorapplied & shortcomings

Lorenz and Imprinting

Problems with Instinct Theory

Doesn’t explain behavior

ex. human aggressive behavior is caused by the instinct aggression

* Most behavior “caused” by instincts is actually learned & shaped by experience. (ex. Aggression)

  • rapid learning that occurs during a brief period usually right after birth or hatching

  • Form of attachment – long lasting

  • Konrad Lorenz (ethologist) studied imprinting and geese

    • 1935 Famous study – showed young geese could be “imprinted” on anything during 1st few days of life

Motivated to increase or decrease levels of arousal influences on behavior


Yerkes Dodson Law

Research indicates that animals & people perform best when their nervous system is at an optimum level of arousal

We all have a different need for excitement or arousal, and we are motivated by activities that help us achieve this level.

The “Goldilocks” principle of motivation – too sleepy OR too nervous perform poorly…

Behavioral theories
Behavioral theories influences on behavior

Intrinsic extrinsic motivators

Intrinsic motivators: desire to perform well for your own sake, for fun, or because it is interesting to YOU

Extrinsic motivators: desire to perform because of a promised reward or threat of punishment

Research of Deci & Ryan proposed if people extrinsic rewards for behavior people find satisfying  less creative & productive

“motivational crowding out”

Deci influences on behavior & Ryan’s research had flaws…if rewarding people extrinsically for doing something they are already motivated to do decreases their productivity...why should anyone receive pay raises, promotions, or bonuses?

Self-determination theory: you can have a combination of both intrinsic & extrinsic motivators at work/school BUT the most satisfying are those that allow you to feel most in control of your behavior



If you feel events are controlled by factors outside your self (external)…less satisfied.

One way to develop intrinsic motivation: influences on behavior

Develop self-control

Think about it: Who controls your fate? decision making

Internality, Chance, and Powerful Others Scale

Your Task: In your journal, record the results from the self-test on Internality & Chance.

-Do you agree with results? Why or why not?

-What’s your “take away” from this test?

-How might it relate to your own motivation?

INCENTIVE THEORY decision making

Any stimulus you think has either a positive or negative outcome for you will be an incentive

Value of incentives change over time

Excerpt describing a point in Daniel Pink’s book Drive

Good marketing strategies cause you to want something you neither have nor thought you needed.