13.3 The Age of Jackson Main Idea Andrew Jackson’s election in 1828 brought a new era of popular democracy. Why It Matters Now Jackson’s use of presidential powers laid the foundation of a modern presidency.
CA Standards • 8.4.2 Explain the policy significance of famous speeches (e.g., Washington’s Farewell Address, Jefferson’s Inaugural Address, and John Q. Adams’s Fourth of July 1821 Address). • 8.4.3Analyze the rise of capitalism and the economic problems and conflicts that accompanied it. (e.g., Jackson’s opposition to the National Bank; early decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court that reinforced the sanctity of contracts and a capitalist economic system of law). • 8.8.1 Discuss the election of Andrew Jackson as president in 1828, the importance of Jacksonian democracy, and his actions as president (e.g., the spoils system, veto of the National Bank, policy of Indian removal, and opposition to the Supreme Court).
Daily Guided Questions • Why did Jackson’s supporters claim there had been a “corrupt bargain” in the 1824 election? • How did Andrew Jackson justify the spoils system?
Cont. • What were the arguments for and against the Second Bank of the United States? • What was the conflict between state and federal powers and how did it lead to concept of nullification and secession?
Adams’ July 4, 1821 Speech “What ever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled (open, expressed), there will her [America’s] heart,… and her prayers be. But she goes not abroad in search of monsters to destroy. She is well-wisher to the freedom and independence of all.” The United States has no designs on foreign (Latin America) territory of other nations or become a world police.
1824 Election • Andrew Jackson wins popular vote and electoral vote, but not majority. • Adams elected by the House of Representatives with Clay’s support. -Clay appointed Secretary of State. • Jackson claims a “corrupt bargain”. -Forms Democratic Party to block Adams policies.
Adam’s Presidency • “Secret” deal burdened presidency • Ambitions plans for the country, but accomplish little. -Supported Clay’s American System of high tariffs and infrastructure. -building of a national university and observatory. • Lacked political skills to win over Congress.
Guided Question • Why did Jackson’s supporters claim there had been a “corrupt bargain” in the 1824 election? Answer: • Jackson wins both popular and electoral votes, but not a majority. Speaker of the House Henry Clay helps Adams to be elected and is rewarded with the position of Secretary of State.
New Political Parties/Election of 1828 • Republican Party splits -National Republicans-Adams -Democrats-Jackson • New Whig Party.
Democracy and Citizenship • Increased suffrage-The right to vote. -Everyday people should hold office. • States ease voting qualification; few require land ownership. • By 1828, 3X new voters help Jackson win the presidency.
Spoils System • Rewarding loyal supporters with gov. jobs. • Limits federal jobs to four-years terms. -Furthered democracy. -Replaces them with his friends. - “kitchen cabinet”
Guided Question • How did Andrew Jackson justify the spoils system? Answer: • He said it furthered democracy, by putting new people in government position.
Jackson v. National Bank • Bank, a safe place to keep federal money. -Stable currency. -Confidence in other banks. • Jackson vetoes recharterof Second Bank of the United States. -privileged institution that favors the wealthy.
Pet Banks • Jackson puts fed. money in state banks loyal to Demo. Party. -print paper money to excess gold and silver. -Gov. demands gold and silver specie (coins) to pay for land. -Rush to exchange paper money for specie, banks stop taking paper. • B.U.S. can not be saved.
Guided Question • What were the arguments for and against the Second Bank of the United States? Answer: • For: Stable money supply and economy. Lent money to business owners. • Against: Favored the wealthy. Controlled the money supply.
Indian Removal Act of 1830 • Remove or Assimilate? • Jackson says remove them. • Funds treaties that forces Native Amer. west. -pressures some, forcibly removes others.
Trail of Tears • 800-mile trip west made on foot. • Native Amer. robbed by everyone, 30% die from exposure, disease, and starvation.
State’s Rights & Nullification • Americans debate powers between the states and fed. gov. (10th Amendment). -Tariffs -federal laws (Alien and Sedition Acts) • States don’t have to follow a law that are unconstitutionalor object to. -Expressed by VP John C. Calhoun. -“(Respect) the rights of the states…[there would be no Union].”
Nullification, South Carolina Rebels • Threatens to secede (break off or leave the U.S.A) due to 1828, 1832 tariffs. • Congress passes Force Bill. -Army and navy can be used against SC. • Henry Clay proposes tariff that lowers duties over ten years.
Guided Question • What was the conflict between state and federal powers and how did it lead to concept of nullification and secession? Answer: • 10th Amendment reserved powers for the states, limiting federal power. • Nullification: Idea that states didn’t have to follow laws they objected to or were unconstitutional. • If their rights were challenged, states had the right to secede (break off) the U.S.A.
Whig Party • Forms to back American System, oppose Jackson.
Jackson’s Legacy • Martin Van Buren wins 1836 election with Jackson’s help.
Panic of 1837 • Bank closings, collapse of credit system. -People lose savings, businesses bankrupted. -A third of pop. out of work. • Van Buren unable to solve economy.
Harrison and Tyler • Whig William Henry Harrison wins 1840 election. -Enacts Whig program to revitalize economy. -Died a month later, succeeded V.P John Tyler. -Tyler opposes many parts of Whig economic plan.
Vocabulary • Andrew Jackson • Suffrage • Caucus • Nominating Convention • Spoils System • Nullification • Secede • Indian Removal Act • Indian Territory • Sequoyah • Trail of Tear