Ancient East Asia (668-670) • China’s Dynasties • Culture began in the _____ River Valley over 5,000 years ago. Over the centuries, ruling dynasties faced invasions from Central Asia, natural disasters caused dynasty’s to collapse. The dynasty was said to have lost “the _____________,” or divine approval and it would give way to the new ruling family. • During the Zhou Dynasty, Chinese _______ spread and _____ grew. • The teachings of _______ and _________ on discipline, moral conduct, and harmony with nature also had a profound influence on East Asian life. • The Zhou Dynasty was followed by a series of dynasties that expanded China’s territory. In the 200s B.C., ______________ united all of China and built part of the __________ to keep out invaders. (protection)
Ancient East Asia (pp. 668-670) • Korea and Japan • Buddhism spread from China to become Korea’s chief religion. • Around 1300 A.D., the Chinese took control of Korea. In the years that followed, the Korean government and educational system were based on the teachings of Confucius. • _____________ had a major impact on Japan’s civilization. • Japan’s _____, or family groups, united under the Yamato dynasty. • Adopted China’s writing system, philosophy, and government structure. • From the 1100s to the late 1800s, a series of military leaders called ________ ruled Japan in the emperor’s name.
Contact With the West (p. 670) • By the 1600’s, western Europe had developed ____________to Asia, hoping to share in the region’s rich trade in _______and _______. In • The United States worked to open Japan for trade. In 1854 U.S. Naval Officer Matthew Perry finally forced the country to end centuries of isolation to trade with the United States. Rule by shoguns soon ended, and the _______ regained full authority. In the years that followed, Japan modernized its economy, government, and military forces.
Modern East Asia (pp. 670-672) • Revolutionary China • 1911, ______________in China. • 1927, military leader Chiang Kai-shek ____________________After years of civil war, the Communists, led ___________won power in 1949 and set up the________________. • In recent years, China’s communist economy has opened to free-market influences. Taiwan has prospered economically and carried out democratic reforms. • Japan’s Transformation • From the 1890’s to the 1940’s, Japan used diplomacy and military force to create an empire. After its defeat in World War II, Japan lost all these acquisitions but rebuilt its economy and is today a global economic power.
Modern East Asia (pp. 670-672) • A Divided Korea • 1950, communist-ruled North Korea invaded American-backed South Korea. • During the Korean War, United Nations forces, led by the United States, rushed to South Korea’s defense. • A 1953 truce ended the fighting. • The 38th parallel still separates North Korea and South Korea. • North Korea cannot meet the needs of its people. • South Korea has become an economically prosperous democracy. • A Free Mongolia • From 1924 – 1991, Mongolia was a communist state under the influence of the Soviet Union. • After the fall of the Soviet communism, the Mongolians adopted a democratic constitution.
Revolutionary China • 1911 – Sun Yat-sen leads a revolution that ends the rule of emperors in China • 1927 – Military leader Chiang Kai-shek forms the Nationalist government • 1949 – Mao Zedong defeats Kai-shek and sets up the communist government of the People’s Republic of China
Communist China • Nationalists fled to Taiwan and set up the Republic of China. • Strict communist political and economic rule • 1950s – “Great Leap Forward” • Large government-owned farms • 1970s – new leadership under Deng Xiaoping
Questions to Consider • Why were China’s government-owned farms unable to produce enough food, resulting in the deaths of 20 million people? • It is 1978 and you are Deng Xiaoping. You know China is not ready to abandon Communism, so what can you do to move China forward?
The Growth of Japan • 1890s-1940s – Built an empire that included Taiwan, Korea, other parts of mainland Asia, and many Pacific islands • 1945 - defeated in WWII • Became a democracy • Stripped of its territories and military • Became a global economic power with worldwide trade and business
The Division of Korea • After WWII, Korea was divided. • South Korea – American backed • North Korea – Communist ruled
The Korean War • 1950 – North Korea invaded South Korea. • UN forces defended South Korea. • June 1951 – each army dug in along the 38th parallel • Stalemate • 1953 – war ends with a truce and North and South Korea remain divided
Mongolia • 1924-1991 – Communist state • Democratic constitution