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The History of East & Southeast Asia
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  1. The History of East & Southeast Asia Chapters 27.2 and 30.2

  2. China • Culture begins in Wei River Valley • No written records at this time • 3,000 BCSome say is even much older • Shang Dynasty (1600-1100 BC) • In N. China Plain • Falls to inner rebellions, nomad invaders, and natural disasters

  3. ** Dynasties followed Mandate of Heaven & Dynastic Cycle **

  4. China • Zhou Dynasty (1100-200 BC) • Spread Chinese culture (Golden Age) • Iron tools • Confucianism & Daoism (Taoism) (will discuss further w/ culture) Man Mo Temple in Hong Kong (Taoist)

  5. China • Qin Dynasty (200s BC) • Expanded territory even further united China • Began Great Wall- military protection

  6. China • Han Dynasty (200 BC-200 AD • Cont’d Great Wall • Records of history greatly improved • Tang Dynasty (600-900 AD) • Saw “Renaissance” period (govn’t & art Δs) • Cont’d Great Wall • Buddhism grew

  7. China • Song Dynasty (900-1200s) • Period of peace, trade & educ. advances • Fell to Mongols • Ming Dynasty (1400-1600s) • 1st to have Eur. traders come in • Porcelain vases • Zheng He reaches E. Africa

  8. China • Qing Dynasty (1600-1900s) • Last to rule as dynasty • Minority group- Manchu (not Han) • Faced many rebellions and wars • Taiping Rebellion 1850-1864 • Opium Wars 1830s-1850s • Guangzhou port forced to be opened to West (1834)

  9. China • Spheres of influence • claimed in China by Europe and Japan (1890-1899) • Forced to be open to all for trade • Revolution ended rule of Qing Dynasty (1911)

  10. China • Mao Zedong & the Communist Party • 1927-1949 • Military Nationalist Party forms civil war with Communists win (PRC), Nationalists flee to Taiwan (ROC)

  11. China • Late 1900s • Tibet taken over in 50s Dalai Lama and Tibetans flee • Strict communist rule eventually turn to free market • Taiwan grows strong as democracy w/ export economy

  12. Korea • 1200 BC • Chinese culture spreads • Buddhism becomes main religion • Silla & Koryo Dynasties rule under united Korea Pulguk Temple (Silla) Tombs to Silla royalty

  13. Korea • 1300 AD • China takes Korean Peninsula • Confucianism = basis for Korean govn’t & daily life • Often fought over by China & Mongols • For next ~600 yrs: • Constantly invaded, faced famines  turns to China, but Japan halts aid Japanese colony in 1910 turns to Russian ideals

  14. Korea • 1950-1953 • Divided in 1948: Russia helped North, US helped South get back on feet  Communist conflict N invaded S (Korean War) US backed South • Ended in stalemate • 2000 • Still separate @ cease-fire line • N in despair, S is prosperous • Peace talks held, but nothing accomplished

  15. Japan • No recorded history until late 600s BC • Set up in individual clans until 400 AD • Yamato Dynasty unites country (400) • Ruled with feudal system • Adopted cultural aspects from China & Korea • Many today consider Yamato the ethnic group for most Japanese

  16. Japan • 1100 AD • Armies weaken dynasty rule • Replaced with shoguns • Minamoto 1st shogun • 1100s-1800s • Samurais help shoguns rule, as professional warriors • All foreign contact is outlawed (isolationism)

  17. Japan • 1854 • US Officer Perry helped end isolation by opening ports • Forced to sign unfair treaties • Later 1800s • Meiji Restoration: major Δs  back to imperial rule

  18. Japan • 1890-1940s • Imperial Japan begins • Takes Taiwan, Manchuria, Korea (colony) • Nanking Massacre, 1937 • This expansion led to conflict w/ U.S. • 1945 • Defeated in WWII • Lost overseas territory • Works toward democracy

  19. Japan • Late 1900s • Now global economic power • Trade and business

  20. Mongolia & Taiwan • Mongolia was communist until 1991 (thanks USSR)…moved to democracy with free market • “Tale of Two Chinas” summary…please share

  21. Early Civilizations • SE Asian skills & traditions • Advanced farming, animal domestication/ livestock, metalwork (Thailand 1st = bronze), power & $ thru maternal side • Early Development • Maritime trade (seafaring), or just crops for land based countries

  22. Funan Kingdom • Indian traders set up posts in Gulf of Thailand, • Blend SE Asn & Indn culture (Hinduism/ central govn’t) • Maritime traders, intense irrigation system

  23. Khmer Empire • Along Mekong R. (almost all Indochina Pen, & N. Malay Pen) • System of lakes, canals, irrigation channels  3-4 crops ea. yr. • Angkor Wat • Hindu temple & tomb for Khmer ruler, built 800 yrs ago

  24. Srivijaya Empire • Island of Sumatra • Navy controlled valuable straits & taxed traders (Singapore’s econ. based on same straits)

  25. China  Vietnam • Writing system, religion & philosophy, govn’t (communism later on) • Islam  SE Asia • Traders = Conversion in coastal areas interior areas • Malacca is impt cultural center for Muslims • Spheres of Influence SE Asia • Most countries owned, become rivals • Buffer state of Siam created

  26. Western Control • Netherlands: Indonesia • UK: Burma, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei • France: Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos • US: Philippines (gain thru war) • Thailand remained free

  27. Western Control • Pros- • Transportation improvements; expanded industry (mining, oil); created commercial plantations  production soared • Cons- • Plantation profit went to West, forced to wk on plantations for little $, many immigrants brought in for labor; increased military conflict

  28. WWII • All Westerners forced out by imperialist Japan • After war, and Japan’s defeat, France wanted control back of Vietnam… • Prelude to Vietnam War • US would stand up against anything communist (North Vietnam, North Korea, China, USSR, Cuba, Cambodia)

  29. Vietnam War • France: kicked out by northern communist (1954) • Ho Chi Minh: led northern Vietnam • Ngo Dinh Diem: led southern Vietnam • Viet Cong: communist rebels in the south • Gulf of Tonkin: attack here brought US in to war • Agent Orange: chemical used to kill jungle • Guerilla Tactics: Viet Cong had power in jungle • Richard Nixon: Withdrew troops, partly due to protest • “boat people”: Millions fled after, most died

  30. Governments • List the types of govn’ts. • Constitutional Monarchy: Brunei/Cambodia/Malaysia/Thailand • Communist: Laos/Vietnam • Dem. Rep.: Indonesia/ Philippines/ Singapore • Military: Myanmar? • Now democratic; presidential republic