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Motivation

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  1. Motivation

  2. Motivation • A need or desire that energizes and directs behavior • Several theories explain motivation • Evolutionary psychology • Drive-reduction theory • Arousal theory • Hierarchy of needs

  3. Evolutionary psychology • Motivation is aimed at survival of the individual and the species • Goals: 1. Stay alive 2. Procreate • Natural selection preserves beneficial physiological and psychological traits • Universal human behaviors are the result of evolution

  4. Drive-reduction theory • Motivation is directed at maintaining homeostasis (balanced levels of biologically critical functions) • Drives result from physiological needs • We are motivated to reduce these drives • Incentives also motivate us and direct our behavior

  5. Arousal theory • Humans have a need for an optimum level of arousal • Once physiological needs are met, the need for stimulation remains • Optimum arousal varies by individual and time • Methods of stimulation vary

  6. Hierarchy of needs • Abraham Maslow’s prioritized system of human needs

  7. Limitations of the hierarchy of needs • Order may vary • Not all needs must be met at all times • Needs are satisfied in different ways across different cultures • Behaviors may fulfill multiple needs at various times

  8. Hunger • The drive to consume calories • Pleasure is a learned response and evolutionary remnant

  9. Where does hunger come from? • Homeostatic imbalance in glucose levels • Glucose = fuel used by all cells in the body • When blood glucose falls, the body signals the brain • Lateral hypothalamus • Orexin • Melanin-concentrating hormone

  10. Eating disorders • Anorexia nervosa • Not a lack of hunger • Fear of becoming obese • Causes of anorexia (?) • Social explanations • Psychological explanations • Biological explanations

  11. Eating disorders • Bulimia nervosa • Binges AND purges • Feelings of loss of control, shame, guilt • Bulimics may be underweight, overweight or normal weight

  12. Obesity • Body-mass index of 30+ • Physical disorder and health issue • Threatens health and increases disease risk • Social discrimination • Causes • Evolution • Learning • Environment

  13. Sexual motivation • The drive to procreate • Pleasure is a perk that accompanies the drive to perpetuate our genetic heritage and further the species • Despite the drive to procreate, humans are able to derive satisfaction from many non-reproductive sexual activities!

  14. Human sexual response • Masters & Johnson - 4 phases • Excitement • Plateau • Orgasm • Resolution

  15. Hormones and sex drive • Hormones direct sexual development and activate/enhance behavior • Testosterone - primary male sex hormone • Made in the testes • Effects • Estrogen - one of two main female sex hormones • Made in the ovaries • Effects

  16. What causes sexual arousal? • External stimuli • Internal stimuli • Social factors • Cultural attitudes • Personal values and attitudes • Sexual education

  17. Sexual orientation • Preference for emotional and sexual relationships with individuals of the same or opposite sex • Orientation as a continuum Exclusively homosexual in attraction, thought & behavior Exclusively heterosexual in attraction, thought & behavior

  18. What determines orientation? • Numerous theories have been disproven • Prenatal hormone exposure may be correlated • Future research is needed • Ethical questions will arise