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Modern European History I HIS-106. Unit 4 - Economic Renewal and Wars of Religion ( 1560-1648). Introduction. The period from 1560-1648 is mostly known as the age of the Wars of Religion

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modern european history i his 106

Modern European History IHIS-106

Unit 4 - Economic Renewal and Wars of Religion (1560-1648)

introduction
Introduction
  • The period from 1560-1648 is mostly known as the age of the Wars of Religion
    • It starts with the French Civil War and ends with the Peace of Westphalia at the end of the Thirty Years War in 1648
    • All the major powers of western Europe are pulled into these conflicts
  • However, this is also the time when the modern global economic system begins to develop
    • This is usually ignored by the events of the next hundred years
the opening of the atlantic
The Opening of the Atlantic
  • Prior to 1492, the Atlantic had been seen as a major obstacle
    • Now it was open not only for travel but for expansion and conquering
  • With the “discovery” of the New World, Europeans began to enjoy new found wealth
    • With it, new powers began to rise up
  • This was, however, at a serious cost to the native populations
    • Specifically, the decimation of the native populations in the Americas
the portuguese
The Portuguese
  • By 1500, only overland trade had been made between Europe and the Far East
    • There was a growing need for goods coming out of Asia, especially silk and spices
  • Focused their attentions on Africa and Asia
  • Throughout the 15th century, worked their way down the western coast of Africa
    • The whole purpose of this exploration was to find an eastern sea route to the Far East
    • In the process, they were able to extend their influence, increase their trade routes, and set up colonies
    • These colonies then led to profitable trade outlets for gold, ivory, and slaves
the portuguese1
The Portuguese
  • In 1488, Bartolomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope
    • Europeans now have a sea passage to the Indian Ocean
    • This is also why Portuguese King John II would not support Columbus’ idea of a western sea route to India
  • Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)
    • Put together after Columbus’ discovery
    • Divided the world into two hemispheres
    • A line was drawn at 370 leagues (970 miles) west of the Cape Verde islands
    • Everything east of that would go to Portugal, while everything west would go to Spain
the portuguese2
The Portuguese
  • In 1498, Vasco da Gama rounded the cape of Africa
    • He landed on the southwest coast of India
    • The Arab traders in India were wary of the Portuguese, fearing that they would somehow disturb their trade
  • Portuguese set up trading posts along the east African coast
  • In 1509, the Portuguese made it to Malacca, near modern day Singapore
    • From there they went to China and the Amboina, which was the heart of the Spice Islands
  • They set up the first European commercial empire
    • Now able to sell goods from the Far East much more cheaply in Europe than the Venetians
spanish conquest of america
Spanish Conquest of America
  • From 1492 to 1518, only modest attempts were made at settlement by the Spaniards
  • However, in the next thirty years the Spanish and their conquistadores worked to conquer the New World
    • In the process, they nearly exterminated native peoples of the Caribbean Islands
    • They toppled and plundered the great Aztec and Inca empires
    • They gained control of territories 10 times as large as homeland
    • They also discovered fabulous silver mines and built an oceanic trade
spanish conquest of america1
Spanish Conquest of America
  • Spain was motivated by religion, nationalist pride, and dreams of personal enrichment
    • A Spanish foot soldier once said “We came here to serve God and the King, and also to get rich”
  • In 1520, Cortés conquered the Aztec Empire
    • He was aided by the small pox epidemic that wiped out a good portion of the population
  • In 1533, Francisco Pizarro conquered the Incan Empire in Peru
    • The empire had been riddled by smallpox and weakened by violent internal divisions
spanish conquest of america2
Spanish Conquest of America
  • The Spanish went on to extended their dominion over the Mayan people of the Yucatán, Honduras, and Guatemala over the next few decades
    • Disease had killed off and weakened the native populations even before the Spanish had arrived
  • Spain then launched further expeditions into Chile, New Granada (Colombia), Argentina, and Bolivia in the 1530s and 1540s
  • By 1550, most of the major centers of native populations had been overwhelmed by the Spanish
spanish conquest of america3
Spanish Conquest of America
  • Silver was found abundantly in the New World, especially in South America
  • Native labor (along with some African slaves) was coerced into mining the metal for the Spanish
    • Native societies were allowed to control their own communities but were forced to provide labor for the mines
  • By 1660, they had extracted more than 7 million pounds of silver
    • This tripled the entire European supply and led to a serious “price revolution” in Europe
spanish empire in america
Spanish Empire in America
  • By the late 15th century, it is estimated that the population of the New World had been between 50 and 70 million
  • Spanish used military force to subdue the native populations
    • In many cases, they were turned into slaves who were forced to work in these colonies
  • When the Spanish arrived in the Caribbean, they brought along such diseases as smallpox and typhus
    • Over the next 300 years, 2/3 of the native populations of the Americas were killed by disease
    • Most within a few generations of contact with the Europeans
spanish empire in america1
Spanish Empire in America
  • One of the major imports from the New World was silver
    • While Spain had hoped to find more gold in the New World, they were much more successfully in discovering silver, especially in South America
  • The Spanish forced natives into mining the silver
    • In areas around the mines, the native communities were allowed to control their own affairs as long as they provided labor for the mines
  • This large amount of silver was used to help finance the Catholic side of the Reformation
spanish empire in america2
Spanish Empire in America
  • The Spanish government believed that the colonies in the New World were there for the benefit of the mother country
    • The native populations that survived were put into slavery to either work in the silver mines or in the fields
  • The Spanish did not focus their sole attentions to the New World
  • In 1520, Magellan was the first person to circumnavigate the world
    • He found a southwest passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific
    • He went on to discover the Philippine Islands, worked his way across the Indian ocean, and then returned to Spain
the commercial revolution
The Commercial Revolution
  • Prior to 1540, Europe was enjoying diverse forms of prosperity
    • Populations were finally recovering from the 14th century plague
    • There was a period of economic growth and with the discovery of the New World, this growth was expected to continue
    • Governments were becoming more effective in their management and were more successful at keeping the inside of their country stable
  • So what went wrong?
the commercial revolution1
The Commercial Revolution
  • Starting in the mid 16th century, prices rose dramatically
    • Between 1550 and 1600, prices doubled and even quadrupled in certain areas
    • The cost of living in England overall doubled
  • There was a rise in population but no rise in agricultural production
    • Population levels rebounded from the plague filled 14th century
    • However, there were no technological breakthroughs in agriculture to produce enough food for the population
  • The food shortage led to a sharp increase in cost as demand outweighed supply
    • A larger percentage of their income was going to food
the commercial revolution2
The Commercial Revolution
  • Also, wages either stagnated or declined
    • With the increase of population, there was an increase in the labor supply
    • This meant that wages either remained the same or went down
  • This meant that the average worker was paying more for food with less wages
  • There was a large influx of Spanish bullion coming to Europe from the New World
    • Spain took this silver and minted it to pay off its soldiers but its debtors as well
    • These new coins quickly circulated throughout Europe
    • This led to a sharp decrease in the value of silver
the commercial revolution3
The Commercial Revolution
  • The masses were negatively affected by the price increases
    • When disasters hit, people could no longer afford the food and would literally starve to death
  • Even the monarchies were affected
    • The governments required a constant income
    • The taxes were worth less and less as money became devalued
    • Wars were becoming increasingly more expensive
    • They had to levy even higher taxes than before
  • Also during this time period there are a number of very costly wars that make the economic situation in Europe worse
mercantilism
Mercantilism
  • The economy of the time was based on two things:
    • Mercantilism
    • Growth of colonies
  • Mercantilism
    • In order for a country to be prosperous it must accumulate bullion
  • It was the main economic theory used from the 16th century until 1776
    • Adam Smith published Wealth of Nations (1776) which promoted laissez-faire styled economics instead
mercantilism1
Mercantilism

There are three aims to mercantilism:

  • Economic Unity
    • Unified coins, measures, and weights
    • Unified national economy
  • Economic Statism
    • Government control of the economy
    • Makes laws on all economic matters
  • Gain Power
    • Strong economy leads to large armies and navies
    • Can win wars and increase international power
basic elements of mercantilism
Basic Elements of Mercantilism

There are three elements to mercantilism:

  • Bullionism
    • Collecting hard currency
    • Done through favorable balance of trade
  • Economic nationalism
    • Develop domestic industry
    • Protect domestic production (paternalism)
    • Make the country self-sufficient
  • Colonization
    • If country has no raw materials, get colonies
    • Won’t have to pay for raw materials
    • Provide new markets
religious conflict
Religious Conflict
  • The religious atmosphere of Europe during this period was also tense
  • Catholics and Protestants hated one another
    • As long as these rivalries remained heated, wars were inevitable
  • Leaders also fanned the flames of religious conflict
    • Many required their states to have a unified religion
    • Minority religious groups were seen as threats so many were kicked out of country
  • This led to civil wars in numerous country
    • They expanded into international wars in many cases
  • From 1540 to 1648, Europe was plagued with conflict
french wars of religion
French Wars of Religion
  • French Wars of Religion (1562-1598)
    • This period is also known as the French Civil War
  • The main Protestant group in France during this period were the Huguenots
    • It is believed they made up 10-20% of the French population by 1562
    • It became popular amongst the aristocratic women who then in turn converted their husbands
  • Under the rule of Henry II, there was an uneasy peace between the crown and the Huguenots
    • Huguenots were forced to meet in secret at first but over time grew in popularity
french wars of religion1
French Wars of Religion
  • Expansion of Calvinism
    • First Huguenot communities were built starting in 1546
    • In 1555, the first Huguenot church was erected in Paris
    • By the late 1550s, they demanded freedom of worship
  • On June 30, 1559, Henry II died in a jousting accident
  • This left his 15-year-old son, Francis II as king
    • He was a sickly child
    • Henry’s wife, Catherine de’ Medici, was chosen to be regent
  • The struggles between the Catholics and the Huguenots began after Francis took the throne
slide31
Francis II
    • (1559-1560)
french wars of religion2
French Wars of Religion
  • One the one side you had the Guise family
    • Specifically, they were Francis Duke of Guise and Charles Cardinal of Lorraine
    • They brothers believed that the country should be firmly Catholic and instituted an intense policy of persecution against the Huguenots
  • On the other side was Louis, Prince de Condé
    • He was the leader of the Huguenot movement
  • On December 5, 1560, Francis II died
    • He had an ear infection that led to the formation of an abscess in his brain
french wars of religion3
French Wars of Religion
  • Next up was his ten year old brother, Charles IX
    • His mother, Catherine de’ Medici, was again named regent
  • Massacre at Vassy (March 1, 1562)
    • The Duke of Guise was traveling through the city of Vassy and he came upon a group of Huguenots who were worshipping inside the city walls
    • Guise and his entourage started a fight with the Huguenots
    • 23 Huguenots were killed and over 100 more injured
    • Prince de Condé called all Protestants to arm themselves in self-defense
  • The war went on for eight years with intermittent truces
    • During this time, the Prince de Condé died and Henry of Navarre took control of the Huguenots
french wars of religion4
French Wars of Religion
  • By 1570, the French treasury was shrinking from the cost of the war so Charles IX began negotiations for a peace
  • Peace of Saint-Germain (August 8, 1570)
    • The Huguenots were given freedom of conscience throughout France and were allowed to hold office
    • They retained the right to worship publicly in the regions allowed before the wars and full freedom in their own areas
  • In order to solidify peace between the Catholics and the Huguenots, Catherine arranged for a marriage
    • This was to be between her daughter Marguerite to Henry of Navarre, the Huguenot leader
french wars of religion5
French Wars of Religion
  • The situation in Paris was tense
    • There were many who would not support the wedding
    • The Parisians were very uncomfortable with thousands of Huguenots in the city escorting their prince
    • On August 22, 1572, an assassination attempt was made on one of the Huguenot leaders, the Admiral de Coligny
  • St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre (August 24, 1572)
    • French guards attacked the Huguenots as a “preemptive strike” against Huguenot retaliation
    • All but two of the Huguenot leaders, Henry of Navarre and the young Henri I, Prince of Condé, were murdered
    • The Parisian people joined in the fighting
      • There are estimates that as many of 3,000 Huguenots were murdered in Paris alone
french wars of religion6
French Wars of Religion
  • Charles IX claimed responsibility for the massacre stating that there had been a plot against the crown
  • Charles died on May 30, 1574 from tuberculosis
    • He was only 24
  • Next in line was his brother Henry III
    • He was 22 years old when he took the throne but was the best “king material” out of the four brothers
  • Henry main goal was to find peace between the Catholics and Huguenots
    • The Guise family was not going to make this possible
slide38
Henry III
    • (1574-1589)
french wars of religion7
French Wars of Religion
  • In 1576, the Guises formed the Catholic League and renewed the war
  • In 1584, Henry’s last brother, François, died
    • Since Henry III had no children, this meant that the next person in line for the throne was Henry of Navarre
    • This would not be tolerated by the Catholics
  • The Catholic League dominated this war
    • Guise marched into Paris with his troops in 1588, forcing Henry III to flee
    • Guise also made Henry III sign a number of edicts excluding Henry of Navarre from the throne along with any heretics
french wars of religion8
French Wars of Religion
  • By this point, Henry III was tired of being dominated by Guise
    • He discovered that Guise was receiving aid from Philip II of Spain
    • Guise also had been negotiating a treaty with Spain declaring Philip’s daughter to be the heir presumptive
  • On December 23, 1588, Henry III had the Guise brothers assassinated
    • Henry then went on to make an alliance with Henry of Navarre
  • On August 1, 1589, Jacques Clément, a fanatical Dominican friar stabbed Henry III
    • Before he died, Henry III declared that Henry of Navarre was the legitimate heir to the throne
slide41
Henry IV
    • (1589-1610)
french wars of religion9
French Wars of Religion
  • Henry IV’s rule marked the beginning of the Bourbon dynasty
  • War continued for the next nine years
    • Many of the nobility were staunch Catholic and refused to follow Henry IV
  • By this point, the state of France was in a miserable condition
    • The country was nearly bankrupt
    • Many farmlands and towns had been abandoned, and many of the roads were in ruins
    • Because of the warfare, trade was at a standstill
  • Henry realized that he had to do something drastic to win the hearts of the French
french wars of religion10
French Wars of Religion
  • On July 23, 1593, Henry converted to Catholicism
    • Protestantism was more of a “family tradition” rather than a religious devotion to him
  • On March 22, 1594, Henry was able to finally retake the city of Paris
    • He supposedly said that “Paris is well worth the mass!”
  • However, Philip II continued to support the Catholic League and its efforts to oust Henry
    • In January 1595, Henry declared war against Spain
french wars of religion11
French Wars of Religion
  • For the next three years, Henry was fighting the remnants of the League as well as Spain
    • Henry was forced to bribe many Catholic noblemen to lay down their arms and accept him as king
    • On May 2, 1598, the war was finally brought to an end
  • Edict of Nantes (April 13, 1598)
    • This was Henry’s “bribe” to the Huguenots
    • It established Catholicism as the official religion of France
    • Huguenots allowed to worship, attend universities, and serve as public officials
    • It created separate spheres of influence between the two religions
dutch wars with spain
Dutch Wars with Spain
  • One of the most powerful political figures at this time was Philip II of Spain
  • He depended heavily on the income from the colonies
    • However, all of the gold and silver (specie) coming into Europe devalued the currency
  • Also, the war with France put Spain heavily into debt
    • By the end of his reign, 2/3 of Spain’s income went to paying interest on all the loans taken out by the government
  • Spain’s main source of income in Europe came from the Low Countries
    • This is modern day Belgium and the Netherlands which were under Spanish control at this time
dutch wars with spain1
Dutch Wars with Spain
  • During the reign of Charles V, this region prospered
    • He had allowed the government to essentially run on its own
    • The southern Low Countries had the greatest per capita wealth in all of Europe
    • Antwerp as one of the leading financial and commercial centers in Europe
  • On October 25, 1555, Charles gave the Low Countries to his son, Philip II
  • Philip hoped to increase the amount of money coming to Spain from the Low Countries
    • This included Philip playing a greater role in the region
dutch wars with spain2
Dutch Wars with Spain
  • During this period, many Protestants were moving into the Low Countries
    • After 1559, many Huguenots migrating to the Low Countries
    • There were a large number of Anabaptists and some Lutherans
    • Philip himself was a staunch Catholic and believed God had chosen him to combat the forces of evil
  • William the Silent and a group of noblemen recognized the growing tensions in the country
    • They made it their duty to bring peace back to the region
    • Starting in 1561, these noblemen sent numerous petitions to Margaret of Parma, Philip’s appointee to the Low Countries
    • They asked for religious toleration for the Calvinists to ease some of that tension but she refused
dutch wars with spain3
Dutch Wars With Spain
  • “Breaking of the Images (August 1566)
    • Mobs of radical Protestants desecrated hundreds of churches and monasteries
    • Was a reaction to the increased persecution of Protestants
  • In response, Philip II sent in an army of twelve thousand Spanish troops
    • They were led by the Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, the 3rd Duke of Alva
  • Once the radicals were defeated, Alva then instituted a reign of terror
    • He set up the Council of Troubles which was a special tribunal to deal with heresy and sedition
dutch wars with spain4
Dutch Wars With Spain
  • William the Silent was forced to flee the Low Countries
    • From abroad, he converted to Protestantism and reorganized the resistance movement
    • He was able to get aid from France, Germany and England
  • Now more organized, the resistance movement began their own attacks
    • In the summer of 1572, William seized the northern Low Countries
  • The Low Countries began to split along religious lines
    • The Protestant northern part broke off forming the United Provinces of the Netherlands
    • The Catholic southern part remained loyal to Philip
dutch wars with spain5
Dutch Wars With Spain
  • In 1584, William was assassinated by a fanatical Catholic
    • His son, William II Duke of Orange, continued to lead the resistance
  • At this point, England became involved in the war
    • Elizabeth openly declared her country’s support of the resistance
    • England was successful in its attacks at sea, but not on land
  • The war continued to wage for a number of years with both sides having major losses and defeats
  • In 1609, a ceasefire was declared between the two sides known as the Twelve Years’ Truce
spanish armada
Spanish Armada
  • For the past few years, English ships had been terrorizing Spanish ships and colonies
    • This was done under the guise of revenge for the Spanish attacks on the Dutch
    • Sir Francis Drake and other seamen were shipping contraband to the Spanish colonies in violation of Philip II’s policies
    • Philip was thoroughly annoyed at these tactics
  • In 1585, Philip decided to construct a large armada to use against England
    • His fleet would help support an invasion of England
    • This way, he would not only regain control of the Atlantic but convert England back to Catholicism
spanish armada1
Spanish Armada
  • When Drake found out about the Armada, he sailed ships to the Spanish coast in April 1587
    • He made it straight into the port of Cadiz
      • There he destroyed supplies put aside for the Armada and set vessels on fire
      • He later boasted that he “singed the king’s beard”
    • He then went on to patrol the Spanish coast, destroying any vessels and supplies that he could
    • All of this delayed the deployment of the Armada for over a year
    • This incident proved that the Spanish fleet was no match for the English but Philip continued on with his preparations
spanish armada2
Spanish Armada
  • There were a number of key problems with the Armada
    • Assumed that the English navy would flee at the sight of it
    • It was led by theDuke of Medina-Sedona
    • When the Armada took off on May 30, 1588, it was soon heavily damaged by a storm
      • This forced them back to port for repairs
      • Sedona even told Philip that this might not be the wisest course of action but Philip would not hear of it
    • The fleet set off for a second time on July 12, 1588
  • The English worked together to protect their country
    • Improved land defenses by training a militia and setting up a series of bonfires and beacon towers along the coastline
    • The navy was reinforced and raised from 34 ships to 200
spanish armada3
Spanish Armada
  • First sighting (July 29, 1588)
    • The beacon lights and bonfires were set all along the coastline and troops were readied
  • The English navy used their speed and longer ranged guns to attack the Armada
    • They constantly remained out of shooting distance of the Spanish ships
  • On August 7, the English sent eight “fireships”
    • This caused the Spanish ships to scatter
  • On August 8, the English attacked the Armada off the Gravelines
    • The English were now in range for the Spanish guns
    • The Spanish were not trained properly for battle
spanish armada4
Spanish Armada
  • The Armada was forced to retreat
    • The “Protestant” winds forced the Armada to travel back to Spain by going north around Scotland
    • Between the bad weather and attacks by the English fleet, most of the Armada was destroyed
      • Only 60 ships returned to Spain and most of those were too damaged to be repaired
      • Around 15,000 Spanish died
  • Defeat of the Armada marked a victory for the Protestants
    • If Philip had won, he could have destroyed the Protestant movement throughout Europe
the thirty years war 1618 1648
The Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648)
  • Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648)
    • The largest and deadliest of the wars of religion
  • Truly was an international war as it contained multiple players:
    • The Holy Roman Empire
    • Spain
    • France
    • Sweden and Demark
  • Both the Protestants and the Catholics had begun making defensive alliances earlier in the century
    • This increased religious tensions in the Empire
phases of the war
Phases of the War
  • The Thirty Years’ War is divided into four phases
  • While the war starts mainly on religious grounds, as time goes on it takes more of a political air
    • At first the war is Protestants versus the Catholic HRE Ferdinand II
    • However, as time goes on, more countries get involved because they were fearful of Ferdinand’s growing power
      • They were afraid it would upset the fragile balance of power
    • By the time of the last phase, religion is not involved at all
      • It was clearly a political war between the French and the Habsburgs
      • Whoever won the last phase would be the champion of Europe
slide63
Ferdinand II
    • King of Bohemia (1617–1619 and 1620–1637)
    • Holy Roman Emperor (1619-1637)
bohemian revolt 1618 1625
Bohemian Revolt (1618-1625)
  • This phase of the war takes place completely in Germany
    • It is also based primarily on religion
  • Bohemia at the time was a mostly Protestant population
    • Around 65% were a mix of Calvinists, Lutherans, and Anabaptists
  • Even though the ruling minority was Catholic, earlier kings had made concessions to the Protestants
    • This was mainly due to the economic importance of Bohemia
    • In 1609, Emperor Rudolf II granted a Letter of Majesty
    • This basically granted freedom of religion throughout Bohemia
    • Throughout the reign of King (and later Emperor) Matthias (1611-1617), Bohemia enjoyed religious diversity and peace
bohemian revolt 1618 16251
Bohemian Revolt (1618-1625)
  • Troubles began when Ferdinand Habsburg was elected King of Bohemia in 1617
    • Ferdinand quickly ended all concessions made to the Protestants and set up a regent government that was mainly Catholic
    • Laws were enforced forbidding Protestants from holding office
  • Protestants were fearful of losing their religious liberties
    • They appealed to Ferdinand but the requests fell on deaf ears
  • On May 23, 1618, a group of Protestants kidnapped two of the king’s Catholic advisors at the royal palace in Prague
bohemian revolt 1618 16252
Bohemian Revolt (1618-1625)
  • A mock trial was held and the advisors were found “guilty” of violating the Letter of Majesty
    • As punishment, the advisors along with their secretary were thrown out of the window 70 feet off the ground
    • Catholics say that the officials survived because of the intervention of the Virgin Mary
    • Protestants knew the real reason: they landed in a huge pile of manure
    • This event is known as the Second Defenestration of Prague
  • This began the Bohemian Revolt and the Thirty Years War
bohemian revolt 1618 16253
Bohemian Revolt (1618-1625)
  • In 1619, Ferdinand was elected as the new Emperor
    • He took the title Ferdinand II
  • His main goal was to unify the Empire under Catholicism
    • To do so, he turned to his nephew, King Philip IV of Spain, for help against the Protestants
  • The Protestants had no hope of winning
    • Ferdinand not only received aid from Spain but also had the use of Maximillian of Bavaria and his 30,000 troops
  • At the end of the war, Ferdinand made Protestantism illegal in Bohemia
    • Included forcing out all Protestant ministers
    • Over 30,000 families were forced to flee the country
danish intervention 1625 1629
Danish Intervention (1625-1629)
  • Many of the European powers did not like the heavy hand Ferdinand was using on Bohemia
    • They were also resentful of the growing power of the Habsburgs
  • King Christian IV of Denmark was especially concerned
    • He was a Lutheran and held territory in the Empire (Holstein)
  • Both Britain and France were willing to provide financial support to Christian
    • The French, under Richelieu, wanted to weaken the power of the Habsburgs
    • The British had begun following a very anti-Spanish policy
    • Christian was able to raise an army of over 35,000
danish intervention 1625 16291
Danish Intervention (1625-1629)
  • In June 1625, Christian invaded Lower Saxony
    • He claimed he was intervening “on behalf of the Protestant cause”
    • Also felt that the sovereignty of Denmark was threatened
  • Ferdinand hired Albrecht von Wallenstein, the military governor of Prague, to lead his army
  • Catholic forces took control in northern Germany
    • On September 14, 1627, they invaded Holstein
    • This was followed up with an invasion of Denmark
  • Treaty of Lübeck (May 22, 1629)
    • Between Christian and Wallenstein
    • Christian was able to hold on to Holstein as long as he did not get involved in the affairs of the Empire again
swedish intervention 1630 1635
Swedish Intervention (1630-1635)
  • Like Christian, Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden got involved in Germany on behalf of the Protestants
  • On July 6, 1630, Gustavus invaded the Empire
    • He had a very well-trained 14,000 man army
    • Easily took northern Germany and moved south
    • In response, Ferdinand was forced to recall Wallenstein to lead his army
  • Peace of Prague (May 30, 1635)
    • Any lands held by Protestant rulers in 1627 were retained
    • All princes inside the Empire were forbidden to make alliances with other members of the Empire or with any foreign powers
french intervention 1636 1648
French Intervention (1636-1648)
  • This phase of the war had no religious affiliations involved
    • This is also known as the War for Europe
    • Shift to a war between the emperor and foreign powers
    • German people were not real participants in this phase
  • France had been financing the war efforts since the start
    • It became more actively involved by 1635
    • French minister, Cardinal Richelieu, wanted to quell the Habsburg threat
    • Alliances were made with the Dutch and with the Swedes
  • War was declared against Ferdinand II in March 1636
    • French were fighting in the Netherlands and western Germany
    • Swedes and Dutch were fighting the emperor in northern Germany
french intervention 1636 16481
French Intervention (1636-1648)
  • While both sides won key victories, they were both plagued by lack of money and supplies
  • Battle of Rocroi (May 19, 1643)
    • French troops devastated a combined Spanish-Imperial force
    • This battle marks the end of Spanish military dominance as it was the first time in a century that they were so cleanly defeated
  • It was going to take five years to work out a final agreement to bring the war to a close
  • The Peace of Westphalia (1648)
    • It involved 194 rulers including representatives from France, Spain, Dutch Republic, Sweden, and Ferdinand III as well as numerous German Princes
peace of westphalia 1648
Peace of Westphalia (1648)
  • It acknowledged the validity of the Peace of Augsburg
    • It allowed the German princes to determine the religion of their subjects
    • This time it included Calvinism as a legal religion
    • Those practicing a denomination that was not the official religion of the land could still practice in public with some restrictions
  • Protestants would retain any church lands in their possession prior to January 1, 1624
  • The constitution of the empire was rewritten
    • All of the German states were given almost completely autonomy
    • Only restriction: they could not make alliances against the Emperor
consequences of the war
Consequences of the War
  • It is estimated that 3-8 million Germans died
    • This was approximately 20-40% of the population
    • Partly due to the actual war itself, but also disease (typhus, dysentery, and the bubonic plague) and the famine that resulted from it
  • Many cities in Germany were besieged and sacked over and over
  • On top of this, undisciplined troops and mercenary armies committed such atrocities as looting and burning much of the countryside
  • This marks the official end of the Reformation