10 Motivation 1 Concept of Motivation 2 Theories of Motivation 3 Key points of Motivation
Motivation • Defined as the psychological forces within a person that determine. • direction of behavior in an organization; • the effort or how hard people work; • the persistence displayed in meeting goals.
Motivation • Intrinsic Motivation:behavior performed for its own sake. • Motivation comes from one’s own mind. • Extrinsic Motivation:behavior performed to acquire rewards. • Motivation source is the consequence of an action.
Motivation Equation Figure 12.1 Inputs from Organizational members Performance Outcomes received by members Time Effort Education Experience Skills Knowledge Work Behav. Contribute to organization efficiency, effectiveness and attain goals Pay Job Security Benefits Vacation Autonomy Responsibility
The Motivation` Process Unsatisfied Need Tension Drives Search Behavior SatisfiedNeed Reduction of Tension
Theories of Motivation • Early Theories of Motivation • Theory X and Theory Y • Theory Z • Hierarchy of Needs Theory • Motivation – Hygiene Theory • Contemporary Approaches to Motivation • Three Need Theory • Equity Theory • Reinforcement Theory • Goal Setting Theory • Expectancy Theory
Douglas McGregor proposed the two different sets of worker assumptions. 道格拉斯.明茨伯格对员工提出两种不同的假设。 Conclusion :Theory Y is a good choice to stimulate the workers. Theory Y Theory X Employee is not lazy，Must create work setting to build initiative，Provide authority to workers 员工是勤劳的，必须建立自足性工作，授权于员工。 Employee is lazy，Managers must closely supervise， Create strict rules & defined rewards 员工是懒惰的，管理者必须严加监督，建立严格规则和奖赏条例
Theory Z • William Ouchi researched the cultural differences between Japan and USA. • USA culture emphasizes the individual, and managers tend to feel workers follow the Theory X model. • Japan culture expects worker committed to the organization first and thus behave differently than USA workers. • Theory Z combines parts of both the USA and Japan structure. • Managers stress long-term employment, work-group, and organizational focus.
Reinforcement Theory • Behavior ids a function of its consequences • Reinforcer is Any consequence immediately following a response that increase the probability that the behavior will be repeated.
Need Level Description Examples Self- Actualization Realize one’s full potential Use abilities to the fullest Esteem Feel good about oneself Promotions & recognition Belongingness Social interaction, love Interpersonal relations, parties Safety Security, stability Job security, health insurance Physiological Food, water, shelter Basic pay level to buy items Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs People are motivated to obtain outcomes at work to satisfy their needs Lower level needs must be satisfied before higher needs are addressed.
McClelland Three-Needs Theory • Three major motives or needs in work situation. • Need for achievement(nAch)： • Need for power (nPow) • Need for affiliation(nAff) • Good Manager should be a person whose three needs are high need for achievement , high need for power , low need for affiliation.
Motivation-Hygiene Theory Consider that some outcomes can lead to job satisfaction, while the others can only prevent dissatisfaction. • Motivator needs: related to nature of the work and how challenging it is. • Hygiene needs: relate to the physical & psychological context of the work.
Motivators and Hygiene Factors • Supervision • Company polity • Re-ship superior • Re-ship subordinate • Salary • Working condition • Achievement • Recognition • Work itself • Responsibility • Growth Extremely satisfied Neutral Extremely dissatisfied • Manager must provide Motivator Need , not only Hygiene Need to motivate subordinates.
Equity Theory • Considers worker’s perceptions of the fairness of work outcomes in proportion to their inputs. • The Outcome/inputratio is compared by worker with another person called a referent. • Adams notes it is the relative rather than the absolute level of outcomes a person receives.
Condition Person Referent Example Equity Outcomes = Outcomes Inputs Inputs Worker contributes more inputs but also gets more outputs than referent Underpayment Equity Outcomes < Outcomes Inputs Inputs Worker contributes more inputs but also gets the same outputs as referent Overpayment Equity Outcomes > Outcomes Inputs Inputs Worker contributes same inputs but also gets more outputs than referent Equity Theory
Restoring Equity • Restoring Equity:Inequity creates tension in workers to restore equity. • underpayment—workers reduce input levels to correct. • overpayment—worker can change the referent to adjust. • If inequity persists, worker will often leave the firm.
Goal Setting Theory • Specific goals increase performance and difficult goals,when accepted, result in higher performance than easy goals. • How to motivate by goal • Workers must accept and be committed to them. • Workers put in high effort to achieve such goals. • Goals must be specific and difficult for high performance results. • Feedback on goal attainment also is important.
Expectancy Theory Developed by Victor Vroom and is a very popular theory of work motivation. High Expectancy (Worker knows that if they try, they can perform) High Instrumentality (Worker perceives that high performance leads to outcomes) High Valence (Worker desires the outcomes resulting from high performance) High Motivation
Effort Performance Outcomes Expectancy: Person’s perception that their effort will result in performance Instrumentality perception that performance results in outcomes Valence: How desired are the outcomes from a job Expectancy, Instrumentality, & Valence goals • According to the Expectancy Theory, high motivation results from high levels of Expectancy, Instrumentality, & Valence.
Integrating Theories of Motivation High nAch Equity theory Ability Perform-ance Effort goal reward Reinforcement theory Goal setting theory
Pay and Motivation • Pay can help motivate workers. Expectancy: pay is an instrumentality (and outcome), must be high for motivation to be high. Need Theory: pay is used to satisfy many needs. Equity Theory: pay is given in relation to inputs. Goal Setting Theory: pay linked to goal attainment. Learning Theory: outcomes (pay), is distributed upon performance of functional behaviors. • Pay should be based on performance, many firms do this with a Merit Pay Plan.
Merit Pay • Can be based on individual, group or organization performance. • Individual Plan: used when individual performance (sales) is accurately measured. • Group Plan: use when group works closely together and is measured as a group. • Organization Plan: When group or individual outcomes not easily measured. • Bonus has a higher impact on motivation since • Salary level not related to current performance. • Other items( base salary, cost of living, seniority). • Salary rarely goes down and usually changes little.