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Chapter Nine: Latin American Music

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  1. Chapter Nine:Latin American Music

  2. Four Major Categories of Latin American Music • Indigenous Music • Iberian (Spanish/Portuguese) and mestizo (mixed ancestry) Folk Music • African influenced Music • Urban Popular Music

  3. Indigenous Peoples • Mexico and Central America: Aztec, Maya, and Inca. • South America, over 100 languages and 2000 dialects. • Several conquests over the past 500 years, Spanish or Portuguese; genocide of much indigenous population, early 16th century

  4. Instruments • Indigenous instruments • Flutes (kenas), ocarinas, conches, panpipes (zampoñas), and various percussion instruments (see the Sue Reichling presentation, class 36) • Non-indigenous (imported) instruments • String instruments, related to violin, harp, and guitar

  5. South AmericaAndes Mountain Region

  6. Andes Village Musicians, featuring panpipes & drums

  7. Panpipes with Kena, Ozark Empire Fair

  8. Two Against Three • Where have we seen this before? • Sesquialtera (simultaneous division of the measure by 3 and by 2) • Hemiola (3 in the space of 2) • IV:7 “Pajarillo” • European Renaissance music • Brahms

  9. Nueva Canción • Nueva Cancion originated in Chile asa modern and socially conscious musical style and message that draws attention to the struggles for dignity by everyday people. • “El Lazo” (IV:8) • Pica Pica, by a composer from Springfield’s sister city in Mexico, Tlaquepaque, is not so political in tone. • Sesquialtera = simultaneous feeling of 6/8 and 3/4 meters (two against three). • “America” from West Side Story alternates 6/8 and 3/4

  10. Pica, Pica • Abran muy bien sus ojitos, Open your eyes very wide, • Agradezco su atencion I am grateful for your attention • Con el degido respeto With due respect • Voy a entonar me cancion. I am going to sing my song. • Identedad de mi pueblo, Intentity of my people, • Clutivo de mis ancestros, Cultivation of my ancestors, • Yo les presento un amigo, I introduce you to a friend, • Por favor tomen su asiento. Please take your seats. • Con el maiz y el frijol, With the corn and the bean, • Plantas hermanas del sol, Sister plants of the sun, • El chile es tan mexicano, The Chile is so Mexican, • Como el mariachi y su son. Like the mariachi and its rhythm • Pica, Pica, Dale a tu vida sabor, Hot, Hot, give flavor to your life • Pica, pica, Milagro de esta region; Hot, Hot, miracle of this region; • Pica, pica, Travieso y vcilador, Hot, Hot, mischievous and playful, • Pica, pica, Alburero y trovador. Magician and troubadour.

  11. No tengan miedo senores, Have no fear people, • Esto es cuestion de semblanza, This is a question of similarities. • Aqui la cosa es calmada, Here, things are calm, • Pueden agarrar confianza. You can trust. • Hay ena gran variedad, There is a great variety, • Hay diferentes sabores, There are different flavors • De formas y de colores, Of shapes and colors • Como podran apreciar. As you will be able to appreciate. • Hay mulato y hay serrano, There are dark ones and others from the mountain. • Y entre otros el cascabel, And among other the bell, • Y uno que se cree muy ancho, And one that thinks himself very wide. • A ver quien puede conel. Let’s see who can put up with him. • Chorus

  12. El guero le dijo al gordo, The blond said to the fat one • Por ahi viene el jalapeno There comes the jalaapeno. • Anda buscando camorra, He’s looking for trouble, • Junto con el cuaresmeno. Together with the one who is the lesser. • El manzano es muy tranquilo, The banana is pretty calm. • No seas guajillo le dicen, They say to him, “Don’t be a hillbilly, • Si ya te quieres ir, vete, If you want to go, leave, • Porque ahi viene el molcajete. Because there comes the troublemaker.” • "me agarran desprevenido,” “They catch me unprepared,” • Grito el chipotle maldito Shouted the cursed chile chipotle. • Y el piquin que le responde, And the little hot chili responded, • "a mi me pelan fresquito” “They skin me raw.” • Chorus Translation by Steve Breedlove

  13. Bolivian K’antu h “Kutirimunapaq” (CD IV:9) “Hocketing panpipes, with rhythmic melodies played in parallel fifths and octaves and a strong, steady rhythm on a large drum.” • Instruments including multiple (over 20!) zampoña, wankara drum, and ch’inisku (triangle). • hocket = alternating notes of melody among several voices and/or instruments (as in the panpipes of this example). • Doubling of melodic line in parallel octaves and fifths. • Formal structure of ABC, and repeated • Continuous dancing along with the music

  14. The Quichua of the Northern Andes of Ecuador • Comunas (small clusters of houses) on the slopes of Mt. Cotacachi • Language is Quichua

  15. Traditions • Traditional agriculture and material culture • Maize; Cabuya cactus provides fiber • Homes are one room, covered patio, mud walls, dirt floor • Men wear white or blue shirts, white pants, dark poncho, hats; women wear embroidered blouses, shawls, two skirts with two belts; dress not changed much since 16th century

  16. Strong sense of community • Common language, dress, material culture • Same diet of beans and potatoes • Weekly markets • Periodic community work projects • Fiestas • Communication carried by foot; walking, or purina, is vital to daily life

  17. Sanjuán • A type of song played at the festival of St. John the Baptist • A type of dance performed at that festival • Now a popular song form

  18. Harp • Without pedals (one scale) • In the region for hundreds of years • Initially brought from European missionaries • Typically a male occupation Cascarón (CD IV:10)

  19. Form of sanjuanes • Strophic • Phrase length often lasts eight beats • Short-long-short rhythmic motive • Rhythm of first half often identical with second half (isorhythm) • Some sanjuanes are sung, while others are instrumental • Walking and wandering is an important metaphor in text

  20. Two Classic Sanjuáns h Rosa Maria’s House A-Burning (CD IV:11) Harp, Voice (and golpe) hIlumán tiyu (CD IV:12) • Violin, kenas, guitars, drum, and voice • Classic sanjuán • Highly popular song in the 1980s and 1990s • Composer was saying “remember me” • Compare to “One Song, Glory” from Rent

  21. The Andean Ensemble Phenomenon • Widespread phenomenon in the Andes and beyond • Music making is an important means of socialization among Quichua youths • Featured regularly for tourists • In the United States, many groups have become popular and widely known Peruvian wayno hAmor imposible (CD:12) Performed by Chaskinakuy

  22. Additional Equadorian Music hVacación (IV:14) A Child’s Wake hToro Barroso (IV:16) Don César Muqinche hVamos pa’ Manabi (IV:17) Bomba