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Chapter Nine: Latin American Music. Four Major Categories of Latin American Music. Indigenous Music Iberian (Spanish/Portuguese) and mestizo (mixed ancestry) Folk Music African influenced Music Urban Popular Music. Indigenous Peoples. Mexico and Central America: Aztec, Maya, and Inca.

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four major categories of latin american music
Four Major Categories of Latin American Music
  • Indigenous Music
  • Iberian (Spanish/Portuguese) and mestizo (mixed ancestry) Folk Music
  • African influenced Music
  • Urban Popular Music
indigenous peoples
Indigenous Peoples
  • Mexico and Central America: Aztec, Maya, and Inca.
  • South America, over 100 languages and 2000 dialects.
  • Several conquests over the past 500 years, Spanish or Portuguese; genocide of much indigenous population, early 16th century
  • Indigenous instruments
    • Flutes (kenas), ocarinas, conches, panpipes (zampoñas), and various percussion instruments (see the Sue Reichling presentation, class 36)
  • Non-indigenous (imported) instruments
    • String instruments, related to violin, harp, and guitar
two against three
Two Against Three
  • Where have we seen this before?
  • Sesquialtera (simultaneous division of the measure by 3 and by 2)
  • Hemiola (3 in the space of 2)
    • IV:7 “Pajarillo”
    • European Renaissance music
    • Brahms
nueva canci n
Nueva Canción
  • Nueva Cancion originated in Chile asa modern and socially conscious musical style and message that draws attention to the struggles for dignity by everyday people.
  • “El Lazo” (IV:8)
  • Pica Pica, by a composer from Springfield’s sister city in Mexico, Tlaquepaque, is not so political in tone.
  • Sesquialtera = simultaneous feeling of 6/8 and 3/4 meters (two against three).
    • “America” from West Side Story alternates 6/8 and 3/4
pica pica
Pica, Pica
  • Abran muy bien sus ojitos, Open your eyes very wide,
  • Agradezco su atencion I am grateful for your attention
  • Con el degido respeto With due respect
  • Voy a entonar me cancion. I am going to sing my song.
  • Identedad de mi pueblo, Intentity of my people,
  • Clutivo de mis ancestros, Cultivation of my ancestors,
  • Yo les presento un amigo, I introduce you to a friend,
  • Por favor tomen su asiento. Please take your seats.
  • Con el maiz y el frijol, With the corn and the bean,
  • Plantas hermanas del sol, Sister plants of the sun,
  • El chile es tan mexicano, The Chile is so Mexican,
  • Como el mariachi y su son. Like the mariachi and its rhythm
  • Pica, Pica, Dale a tu vida sabor, Hot, Hot, give flavor to your life
  • Pica, pica, Milagro de esta region; Hot, Hot, miracle of this region;
  • Pica, pica, Travieso y vcilador, Hot, Hot, mischievous and playful,
  • Pica, pica, Alburero y trovador. Magician and troubadour.
No tengan miedo senores, Have no fear people,
  • Esto es cuestion de semblanza, This is a question of similarities.
  • Aqui la cosa es calmada, Here, things are calm,
  • Pueden agarrar confianza. You can trust.
  • Hay ena gran variedad, There is a great variety,
  • Hay diferentes sabores, There are different flavors
  • De formas y de colores, Of shapes and colors
  • Como podran apreciar. As you will be able to appreciate.
  • Hay mulato y hay serrano, There are dark ones and others from the mountain.
  • Y entre otros el cascabel, And among other the bell,
  • Y uno que se cree muy ancho, And one that thinks himself very wide.
  • A ver quien puede conel. Let’s see who can put up with him.
  • Chorus
El guero le dijo al gordo, The blond said to the fat one
  • Por ahi viene el jalapeno There comes the jalaapeno.
  • Anda buscando camorra, He’s looking for trouble,
  • Junto con el cuaresmeno. Together with the one who is the lesser.
  • El manzano es muy tranquilo, The banana is pretty calm.
  • No seas guajillo le dicen, They say to him, “Don’t be a hillbilly,
  • Si ya te quieres ir, vete, If you want to go, leave,
  • Porque ahi viene el molcajete. Because there comes the troublemaker.”
  • "me agarran desprevenido,” “They catch me unprepared,”
  • Grito el chipotle maldito Shouted the cursed chile chipotle.
  • Y el piquin que le responde, And the little hot chili responded,
  • "a mi me pelan fresquito” “They skin me raw.”
  • Chorus Translation by Steve Breedlove
bolivian k antu
Bolivian K’antu

h “Kutirimunapaq” (CD IV:9)

“Hocketing panpipes, with rhythmic melodies played in parallel fifths and octaves and a strong, steady rhythm on a large drum.”

  • Instruments including multiple (over 20!) zampoña, wankara drum, and ch’inisku (triangle).
  • hocket = alternating notes of melody among several voices and/or instruments (as in the panpipes of this example).
  • Doubling of melodic line in parallel octaves and fifths.
  • Formal structure of ABC, and repeated
  • Continuous dancing along with the music
the quichua of the northern andes of ecuador
The Quichua of the Northern Andes of Ecuador
  • Comunas (small clusters of houses) on the slopes of Mt. Cotacachi
  • Language is Quichua
  • Traditional agriculture and material culture
    • Maize; Cabuya cactus provides fiber
    • Homes are one room, covered patio, mud walls, dirt floor
    • Men wear white or blue shirts, white pants, dark poncho, hats; women wear embroidered blouses, shawls, two skirts with two belts; dress not changed much since 16th century
strong sense of community
Strong sense of community
  • Common language, dress, material culture
  • Same diet of beans and potatoes
  • Weekly markets
  • Periodic community work projects
  • Fiestas
  • Communication carried by foot; walking, or purina, is vital to daily life
sanju n
  • A type of song played at the festival of St. John the Baptist
  • A type of dance performed at that festival
  • Now a popular song form
  • Without pedals (one scale)
  • In the region for hundreds of years
  • Initially brought from European missionaries
  • Typically a male occupation

Cascarón (CD IV:10)

form of sanjuanes
Form of sanjuanes
  • Strophic
  • Phrase length often lasts eight beats
  • Short-long-short rhythmic motive
  • Rhythm of first half often identical with second half (isorhythm)
  • Some sanjuanes are sung, while others are instrumental
  • Walking and wandering is an important metaphor in text
two classic sanju ns
Two Classic Sanjuáns

h Rosa Maria’s House A-Burning (CD IV:11)

Harp, Voice (and golpe)

hIlumán tiyu (CD IV:12)

  • Violin, kenas, guitars, drum, and voice
  • Classic sanjuán
  • Highly popular song in the 1980s and 1990s
  • Composer was saying “remember me”
    • Compare to “One Song, Glory” from Rent
the andean ensemble phenomenon
The Andean Ensemble Phenomenon
  • Widespread phenomenon in the Andes and beyond
  • Music making is an important means of socialization among Quichua youths
  • Featured regularly for tourists
  • In the United States, many groups have become popular and widely known

Peruvian wayno

hAmor imposible (CD:12)

Performed by Chaskinakuy

additional equadorian music
Additional Equadorian Music

hVacación (IV:14) A Child’s Wake

hToro Barroso (IV:16) Don César Muqinche

hVamos pa’ Manabi (IV:17) Bomba